• 1
    Riley M, King J. Births in Victoria 2001-2002. Melbourne: Perinatal Data Collection Unit, Public Health, Victorian Government Department of Human Services, 2003. []. Accessed January 2006.
  • 2
    Muller F, Benattar C, Audibert F, Roussel N, Dreux S, Cuckle H. First-trimester screening for Down syndrome in France combining fetal nuchal translucency measurement and biochemical markers. Prenat Diagn 2003;23:8336.
  • 3
    Niemimaa M, Suonpaa M, Perheentupa A, Seppala M, Heinonen S, Laitinen P, et al. Evaluation of first trimester maternal serum and ultrasound screening for Down’s syndrome in Eastern and Northern Finland. Eur J Hum Genet 2001;9:4048.
  • 4
    Crossley JA, Aitken DA, Cameron AD, McBride E, Connor JM. Combined ultrasound and biochemical screening for Down’s syndrome in the first trimester: a Scottish multicentre study. BJOG 2002;109:66776.
  • 5
    Schuchter K, Hafner E, Stangl G, Metzenbauer M, Höfinger D, Philipp K. The first trimester ‘combined test’ for the detection of Down syndrome pregnancies in 4939 unselected pregnancies. Prenat Diagn 2002;22:21115.
  • 6
    Borrell A, Casals E, Fortuny A, Farre MT, Gonce A, Sanchez A, et al. First-trimester screening for trisomy 21 combining biochemistry and ultrasound at individually optimal gestational ages. An interventional study. Prenat Diagn 2004;24:5415.
  • 7
    Stenhouse EJ, Crossley JA, Aitken DA, Brogan K, Cameron AD, Connor JM. First trimester combined ultrasound and biochemical screening for Down syndrome in routine clinical practice. Prenat Diagn 2004;24:77480.
  • 8
    Wøjdemann K, Shalmi A, Christiansen M, Larsen S, Sundberg K, Brocks V, et al. Improved first-trimester Down syndrome screening performance by lowering the false positive rate: a prospective study of 9941 low-risk women. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2005;25:22733.
  • 9
    Spencer K, Spencer C, Power M, Moakes A, Nicolaides K. One stop clinic for assessment of risk for fetal anomalies: a report of the first year of prospective screening for chromosomal anomalies in the first trimester. BJOG 2000;107:12715.
  • 10
    Bindra R, Heath V, Liao A, Spencer K, Nicolaides K. One-stop clinic for assessment of risk for trisomy 21 at 11-14 weeks: a prospective study of 15 030 pregnancies. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2002;20:21925.
  • 11
    Von Kaisenberg CS, Gasiorek-Wiens A, Bielicki M, Bahlmann F, Meyberg H, Kossakiewicz A, et al. Screening for trisomy 21 by maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency and maternal serum biochemistry at 11-14 weeks: a German multicenter study. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2002;12:8994.
  • 12
    Spencer K, Spencer CE, Power M, Dawson C, Nicolaides KH. Screening for chromosomal abnormalities in the first trimester using ultrasound and maternal serum biochemistry in a one-stop clinic: a review of three years prospective experience. BJOG 2003;110:2816.
  • 13
    Nicolaides K, Spencer K, Avgidou K, Faiola S, Falcon O. Multicenter study of first trimester screening for trisomy 21 in 75 821 pregnancies: results and estimation of the potential impact of individual risk-orientated two-stage first-trimester screening. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2005;25:2216.
  • 14
    Krantz DA, Hallahan TW, Orlandi F, Buchanan P, Larsen JW Jr, Macri JN. First trimester Down syndrome screening using dried blood biochemistry and nuchal translucency. Obstet Gynecol 2000;96:20713.
  • 15
    Wapner R, Thom E, Simpson JL, Pergament E, Silver R, Filkins K, et al. First-trimester screening for trisomies 21 and 18. N Engl J Med 2003;349:140513.
  • 16
    Nicolaides K. Nuchal translucency and other first-trimester sonographic markers of chromosomal abnormalities. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004;191:4567.
  • 17
    The Fetal Medicine Foundation. The 10-14 Week Scan Theoretical Course. London: The Fetal Medicine Foundation, 1999. []. Accessed January 2006.
  • 18
    Cuckle HS, Van Lith JM. Appropriate biochemical parameters in first-trimester screening for Down syndrome. Prenat Diagn 1999;19:50512.
  • 19
    Reynolds TM, Penney MD. The mathematical basis of multivariate risk screening: with special reference to screening for Down’s syndrome associated pregnancy. Ann Clin Biochem 1990;27:4528.
  • 20
    Wald N, Cuckle H, Densem J, Kennard A, Smith D. Maternal serum screening for Down’s syndrome: the effect of routine ultrasound scan determination of gestational age and adjustment for maternal weight. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1992;99:1449.
  • 21
    Wald N, Hackshaw AK. Combining ultrasound and biochemistry in first-trimester screening for Down’s syndrome. Prenat Diagn 1997;17:8219.
  • 22
    Tul N, Spencer K, Noble P, Chan C, Nicolaides K. Screening for trisomy 18 by fetal nuchal translucency and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A at 10-14 weeks of gestation. Prenat Diagn 1999;19:103542.
  • 23
    Malone FD, Canick JA, Ball RH, Nyberg DA, Comstock CH, Bukowski R, et al. First trimester or second-trimester screening, or both, for Down’s syndrome. N Engl J Med 2005;353:200111.
  • 24
    Spencer K, Crossley JA, Aitken DA, Nix AB, Dunstan FD, Williams K. Temporal changes in maternal serum biochemical markers of trisomy 21 across the first and second trimester of pregnancy. Ann Clin Biochem 2002;39:56776.
  • 25
    Wald N, Rodeck C, Hackshaw AK, Walters J, Chitty L, Mackinson AM. First and second trimester antenatal screening for Down’s syndrome: the results of the Serum, Urine and Ultrasound Screening Study (SURUSS). Health Technol Assess 2003;7:188.
  • 26
    Malone FD, Wald NJ, Canick JA, Ball RH, Nyberg DA, Comstock CH, et al. First- and second-trimester evaluation of risk (FASTER) trial: principal results of the NICHID multicenter Down syndrome screening study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003;189:S56.
  • 27
    Anonymous. AFP or PAPP-A. Down’s Screening News 2000, p. 41.
  • 28
    Riley M, Griffin O. Validating a statewide data collection: differences in information technology resources between hospitals. Health Inf Manag 1997;27:678.
  • 29
    Riley M, Phyland S, Halliday J. Validation study of the Victorian Birth Defects Register. J Paediatr Child Health 2004;40:5448.
  • 30
    Riley M, Howard J, Dale K, Palma S, Halliday J. Validating notifications of pregnancy terminations for birth defects before 20 weeks gestation. Health Inf Manag 2001;30:2.
  • 31
    Bruinsma F, Venn A, Skene L. Legal and ethical issues in record linkage studies. Australian Epidemiologist 1999;6:15–17.
  • 32
    Taylor R. Automated record linkage. In: KerrC, TaylorR, HeardG, editors. Handbook of Public Health Methods, 1st edn. Sydney: The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc, 1998:1847.
  • 33
    Kelman C, Bass A, Holman C. Research use of linked health data – a best practice protocol. Aust N Z J Public Health 2002;26:2514.
  • 34
    Collins V, Webley C, Sheffield L, Halliday J. Fetal outcome and maternal morbidity after early amniocentesis. Prenat Diagn 1998;18:76772.
  • 35
    Jaques AM, Collins VR, Haynes K, Sheffield LJ, Francis I, Forbes R, et al. Using record linkage and manual follow-up to evaluate the Victorian maternal serum screening quadruple test for Down’s syndrome, trisomy 18 and neural tube defects. J Med Screen 2006;13:813.
  • 36
    Alberman E, Huttly W, Hennessy E, McIntosh A. The use of record linkage for auditing the uptake and outcome of prenatal serum screening and prenatal diagnostic tests for Down syndrome. Prenat Diagn 2003;23:8016.
  • 37
    Avgidou K, Papageorghiou A, Bindra R, Spencer K, Nicolaides KH. Prospective first trimester screening for trisomy 21 in 30,564 pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005;192:17617.
  • 38
    Huang T, Watt HC, Wald NJ. The effect of differences in the distribution of maternal age in England and Wales on the performance of prenatal screening for Down’s syndrome. Prenat Diagn 97;17:61521.
  • 39
    Wald N, Canick JA. Seeking other disorders within antenatal serum screening programmes for Down’s syndrome. J Med Screen 2002;9:1456.