Maternal human parvovirus B19 infection and the risk of fetal death and low birthweight: a case–control study within 35 940 pregnant women
Article first published online: 16 SEP 2009
© 2009 The Authors Journal compilation © RCOG 2009 BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Volume 116, Issue 11, pages 1492–1498, October 2009
How to Cite
Sarfraz, A., Samuelsen, S., Bruu, A.-L., Jenum, P. and Eskild, A. (2009), Maternal human parvovirus B19 infection and the risk of fetal death and low birthweight: a case–control study within 35 940 pregnant women. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 116: 1492–1498. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2009.02211.x
- Issue published online: 16 SEP 2009
- Article first published online: 16 SEP 2009
- Accepted 7 March 2009.
- Fetal death;
- parvovirus B19;
- risk factors
Objectives To assess the association between maternal parvovirus B19 infection and fetal death, birthweight and length of gestation.
Design Case–control study.
Setting Population based.
Population Cases were all 281 women with fetal death within a cohort of 35 940 pregnant woxmen in Norway. The control group consisted of a random sample of 957 women with a live born child.
Method Information on pregnancy outcome was obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. First trimester serum samples were tested for antibodies against parvovirus B19 (IgM and IgG). In seronegative women, further serum was analysed to detect seroconversion during pregnancy.
Main outcome measures Fetal death, length of gestation and birthweight.
Results Two of 281 (0.7%) of the women who experienced fetal death and nine of 957 (0.9%) of the controls had presence of IgM antibodies, crude odds ratio 0.8; 95% CI (0.2–3.5). In initially, seronegative women, 3.1% (2/65) with fetal death and 2.6% (8/307) with a live birth seroconverted, crude odds ratio 1.2; 95% CI (0.2–5.7). Presence of maternal parvovirus-specific IgG or IgM antibodies in the first trimester, or seroconversion during pregnancy were not associated with lower birthweight or reduced length of gestation in live born children, but was associated with low birthweight in stillborn offspring.
Conclusion Maternal parvovirus B19 infection was not associated with fetal death in our study. Very few cases of fetal death may be attributed to maternal parvovirus B19 infection.