Objective Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine playing a pivotal role in both innate and adaptive immune responses. A single nucleotide polymorphism located in the first intron of the human IFN-γ gene can influence the secretion of cytokine. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association of IFN-γ T/A gene polymorphism with the risk of cervical cancer.
Design Case–control study.
Setting Uttar Pradesh State in India.
Sample Two hundred cases with histologically proven cancer of the cervix and healthy controls (n = 230), age and ethnicity matched were recruited in this study.
Methods Genotyping was performed for bi-allelic +874 (T/A) polymorphism of IFN-γ by amplification refractory mutation system method.
Main outcome measures Low producer IFN-γ +874 AA genotype was associated with high risk for cervical cancer, which further modulated the increased risk in tobacco users.
Results IFN-γ AA genotype which is low producer of IFN-γ was associated with increased risk of cervical cancer (OR = 2.43, P = 0.003). Allele A was at 1.54-fold increased risk of cervical cancer (OR=1.54, P = 0.002). The AA genotype showed statistically significant risk with high stage (III + IV) of cervical cancer (OR = 4.99, P = 0.001). In tobacco users, AA genotype showed significantly increased susceptibility to cervical cancer (OR = 5.08, P = 0.010).
Conclusion Variation in IFN-γ +874 AA genotype because of ethnicity in north-Indian population may represent an important susceptibility biomarker for cervical cancer risk as well as other diseases and should be explored further.