SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    European Collaborative Study. The mother-to-child HIV transmission epidemic in Europe: evolving in the East and established in the West. AIDS 2006;20:141927.
  • 2
    Fowler MG, Lampe MA, Jamieson DJ, Kourtis AP, Rogers MF. Reducing the risk of mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus transmission: past successes, current progress and challenges, and future directions. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2007;197 (3 Suppl):S39.
  • 3
    Williams SF, Keane-Tarchichi MH, Bettica L, Dieudonne A, Bardeguez AD. Pregnancy outcomes in young women with perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus-1. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2009;200:149.e15.
  • 4
    Wilfert CM, Fowler MG. Balancing maternal and infant benefits and the consequences of breast-feeding in the developing world during the era of HIV infection. J Infect Dis 2007;195:1657.
  • 5
    Marinda E, Humphrey JH, Iliff PJ, Mutasa K, Nathoo KJ, Piwoz EG, et al. Child mortality according to maternal and infant HIV status in Zimbabwe. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2007;26:51926.
  • 6
    Mataka E. Maternal health and HIV: bridging the gap. Lancet 2007;370:12901.
  • 7
    Abrams EJ, Myer L, Rosenfield A, El-Sadr WM. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission services as a gateway to family-based human immunodeficiency virus care and treatment in resource-limited settings: rationale and international experiences. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2007;197 (3 Suppl):S1016.
  • 8
    Spensley A, Sripipatana T, Turner AN, Hoblitzelle C, Robinson J, Wilfert C. Preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV in resource-limited settings: the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation experience. Am J Public Health 2009;99:6317.
  • 9
    World Health Organization. Towards Universal Access: Scaling up Priority HIV/AIDS Interventions in the Health Sector: Progress Report, April 2007. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2007.
  • 10
    World Health Organisation. Towards Universal Access. Scaling up Priority HIV/AIDS Interventions in the Health Sector 2008 Progress Report. Geneva: World Health Organisation, 2008.
  • 11
    World Health Organization. Antiretroviral Drugs for treating Pregnant Women and preventing HIV Infection in Infants in Resource-limited Settings: Towards Universal Access. Recommendations for a Public Health Approach. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2006.
  • 12
    US Public Health Service Task Force. Public health service task force recommendations for use of antiretroviral drugs in pregnant HIV-infected women for maternal health and interventions to reduce perinatal HIV transmission in the United States. 29 April 2009 [ http://aidsinfo.nih.gov/contentfiles/PerinatalGL.pdf]. Accessed 1 August 2009.
  • 13
    Stek AM. Antiretroviral treatment in pregnancy. Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2008;3:15560.
  • 14
    Newell ML, Thorne C. Antiretroviral therapy and mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2004;2:71732.
  • 15
    Lallemant M, Jourdain G, Le Coeur S, Mary JY, Ngo-Giang-Huong N, Koetsawang S, et al. Single-dose perinatal nevirapine plus standard zidovudine to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in Thailand. N Engl J Med 2004;351:21728.
  • 16
    Arrive E, Dabis F. Prophylactic antiretroviral regimens for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in resource limited settings. Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2008;3:000.
  • 17
    Lockman S, Shapiro RL, Smeaton LM, Wester C, Thior I, Stevens L, et al. Response to antiretroviral therapy after a single, peripartum dose of nevirapine. N Engl J Med 2007;356:13547.
  • 18
    Lockman S, McIntyre JA. Reduction of HIV-1 drug resistance after intrapartum single-dose nevirapine. Lancet 2007;370:166870.
  • 19
    Martinson NA, Ekouevi DK, Dabis F, Morris L, Lupodwana P, Tonwe-Gold B, et al. Transmission rates in consecutive pregnancies exposed to single-dose nevirapine in Soweto, South Africa and Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2007;45:2069.
  • 20
    Martinson NA, Morris L, Johnson J, Gray GE, Pillay V, Ledwaba J, et al. Women exposed to single-dose nevirapine in successive pregnancies: effectiveness and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance. AIDS 2009;27:80916.
  • 21
    Clumeck N, Pozniak A, Raffi F. European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) guidelines for the clinical management and treatment of HIV-infected adults. HIV Med 2008;9:6571.
  • 22
    US Food and Drug Administration. FDA public health advisory for nevirapine (viramune). 19 January 2005 [ http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/PublicHealthAdvisories/ucm051674.htm]. Accessed 1 August 2009.
  • 23
    Mofenson LM. Efavirenz reclassified as FDA pregnancy category D. AIDS Clin Care 2005;17:17.
  • 24
    UNAIDS. AIDS epidemic update: December 2007. Geneva: Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and World Health Organization (WHO), 2007.
  • 25
    Breastfeeding and HIV International Transmission Study Group. Late postnatal transmission of HIV-1 in breast-fed children: an individual patient data meta-analysis. J Infect Dis 2004;189:215466.
  • 26
    Coovadia HM, Rollins NC, Bland RM, Little K, Coutsoudis A, Bennish ML, Newell ML, et al. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 infection during exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life: an intervention cohort study. Lancet 2007;369:110716.
  • 27
    John-Stewart G, Mbori-Ngacha D, Ekpini R, Janoff EN, Nkengasong J, Read JS, et al. Breast-feeding and Transmission of HIV-1. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2004;35:196202.
  • 28
    Thior I, Lockman S, Smeaton LM, Shapiro RL, Wester C, Heymann SJ, et al. Breastfeeding plus infant zidovudine prophylaxis for 6 months vs formula feeding plus infant zidovudine for 1 month to reduce mother-to-child HIV transmission in Botswana: a randomized trial: the Mashi Study. JAMA 2006;296:794805.
  • 29
    Creek T, Arvelo W, Kim A, et al. Role of Infant Feeding and HIV in a Severe Outbreak of Diarrhea and Malnutrition among Young Children, Botswana, 2006. Abstract 770. 14th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections; 2007 February 25–28; Los Angeles. 2007. Foundation for Retrovirology and Human Health, Alexandria, VA.
  • 30
    Rankin WW, Brennan S, Schell E, Laviwa J, Rankin SH. The stigma of being HIV-positive in Africa. PLoS Med 2005;2:e247.
  • 31
    McIntyre JA, Lallement M. The prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV: are we translating scientific success into programmatic failure? Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2008;3:139145.
  • 32
    Coutsoudis A, Pillay K, Kuhn L, Spooner E, Tsai WY, Coovadia HM. Method of feeding and transmission of HIV-1 from mothers to children by 15 months of age: prospective cohort study from Durban, South Africa. AIDS 2001;15:37987.
  • 33
    Kuhn L, Aldrovandi GM, Sinkala M, Kankasa C, Semrau K, Mwiya M, et al. Effects of early, abrupt weaning on HIV-free survival of children in Zambia. N Engl J Med 2008;359:13041.
  • 34
    Sinkala M, Kuhn L, Kankasa C, et al. No Benefit of Early Cessation of Breastfeeding at 4 months on HIV-free survival of infants born to HIV-infected mothers in Zambia: The Zambia Exclusive Breastfeeding Study. Abstract 74. 14th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections; 2007 February 25–28; Los Angeles. 2007. Foundation for Retrovirology and Human Health, Alexandria, VA.
  • 35
    Kumwenda NI, Hoover DR, Mofenson LM, Thigpen MC, Kafulafula G, Li Q, et al. Extended antiretroviral prophylaxis to reduce breast-milk HIV-1 transmission. N Engl J Med 2008;359:11929.
  • 36
    Bedri A, Gudetta B, Isehak A, Kumbi S, Lulseged S, Mengistu Y, et al. Extended-dose nevirapine to 6 weeks of age for infants to prevent HIV transmission via breastfeeding in Ethiopia, India, and Uganda: an analysis of three randomised controlled trials. Lancet 2008;372:30013.
  • 37
    Kilewo C, Karlsson K, Massawe A, Lyamuya E, Swai A, Mhalu F, Biberfeld G, et al. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 through breast-feeding by treating infants prophylactically with lamivudine in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: the Mitra Study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2008;48:31523.
  • 38
    Mofenson LM. Antiretroviral prophylaxis to reduce breast milk transmission of HIV type 1: new data but still questions. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2008;48:23740.
  • 39
    Thomas T, Masaba R, Ndivo R, Zeh C, Borkowf C, Thigpen M, et al. Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV-1 among Breastfeeding Mothers Using HAART: The Kisumu Breastfeeding Study, Kisumu, Kenya, 2003–2007. 15th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections; 2008 February 3–6; Boston, MA, 2008. Abstract 45aLB. Foundation for Retrovirology and Human Health, Alexandria, VA.
  • 40
    Palombi L, Marazzi MC, Voetberg A, Magid NA. Treatment acceleration program and the experience of the DREAM program in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. AIDS 2007;21 (Suppl 4):S6571.
  • 41
    Kilewo C, Karlsson K, Ngarina M, Massawe A, Lyamuya E, Lipyoga R, et al. Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV-1 through Breastfeeding by treating Mothers Prophylactically with Triple Antiretroviral Therapy in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania—The MITRA PLUS Study. 4th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention; 2007 July 22–25; Sydney. Abstract no. TUAX101”. 2007. International AIDS Society, Geneva.
  • 42
    El-Sadr WM, Lundgren JD, Neaton JD, Gordin F, Abrams D, Arduino RC, et al. CD4+ count-guided interruption of antiretroviral treatment. N Engl J Med 2006;355:228396.
  • 43
    Goga AE, Van Wyk B, Doherty T, Colvin M, Jackson D, Chopra M and the Good Start Study Group, et al. Operational effectiveness of guidelines on complete breast-feeding cessation to reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV: results from a prospective observational cohort study at routine prevention of mother-to-child transmission sites, South Africa. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2009;50:5218.
  • 44
    Creek TL, Ntumy R, Seipone K, Smith M, Mogodi M, Smit M, et al. Successful introduction of routine opt-out HIV testing in antenatal care in Botswana. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2007;45:1027.
  • 45
    Moses A, Zimba C, Kamanga E, Nkhoma J, Maida A, Martinson F, et al. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission: program changes and the effect on uptake of the HIVNET 012 regimen in Malawi. AIDS 2008;22:837.
  • 46
    Chandisarewa W, Stranix-Chibanda L, Chirapa E, Miller A, Simoyi M, Mahomva A, et al. Routine offer of antenatal HIV testing (“opt-out” approach) to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV in urban Zimbabwe. Bull World Health Organ 2007;85:84350.
  • 47
    World Health Organization. Strategic Approaches to the Prevention of HIV Infection in Infants. Report of a WHO meeting, Morges, Switzerland, 20–22 March 2002. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2002.
  • 48
    Global Partners Forum. Achieving universal access to comprehensive PMTCT services. 26 November 2007 [ http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/mtct/pmtct_scaleup2007/en/index.html]. Accessed 4 December 2007.