• 1
    Honig SF. Incidence, trends and the epidemiology of breast cancer. In: Edr. Spear SL, Associate edrs. LittleJW, LippmanME, WoodWC, editors. Surgery of the Breast: Principles and Art. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven; 1998. pp. 322.
  • 2
    La Vecchia C. Epidemiology of ovarian cancer: a summary review. Eur J Cancer Prev 2001;10:1259.
  • 3
    Purdy DM, Green AC. Epidemiology of endometrial cancer. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2001;15:34154.
  • 4
    Parkin DM, Whelan SL, Ferlay J, Teppo L, Thomas DB. Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Volume VIII. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2002.
  • 5
    Boyle P, Levin B. World Cancer Report. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2008.
  • 6
    Castellsague X. Natural history and epidemiology of HPV infection and cervical cancer. Gynecol Oncol 2008;110:S47.
  • 7
    Evans N. State of Evidence. What is the Connection Between Environment and Breast Cancer? 2nd edn. San Francisco, CA: Breast Cancer Fund and Breast Cancer Action, 2006.
  • 8
    Gouin T, Jantunen L, Harner T, Blanchard P, Bidleman T. Spatial and temporal trends of chiral organochlorine signatures in Great Lakes air using passive air samplers. Environ Sci Technol 2007;41:387783.
  • 9
    Kitada Y, Kawahata H, Suzuki A, Oomori T. Distribution of pesticides and bisphenol A in sediments collected from rivers adjacent to coral reefs. Chemosphere 2008;71:208290.
  • 10
    Zhang H, Chai Z, Sun H. Human hair as a potential biomonitor for assessing persistent organic pollutants. Environ Int 2007;33:68593.
  • 11
    Pentamwa P, Oanh NT. Levels of pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in selected homes in the Bangkok metropolitan region, Thailand. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2008;1140:91112.
  • 12
    Jafari A, Moeckel C, Jones KC. Spatial biomonitoring of persistent organic pollutants in Iran: a study using locally produced butter. J Environ Monit 2008;10:8616.
  • 13
    Kumari B, Singh J, Singh S, Kathpal TS. Monitoring of butter and ghee (clarified butter fat) for pesticidal contamination from cotton belt of Haryana, India. Environ Monit Assess 2005;105:11120.
  • 14
    Pant N, Shukla M, Kumar Patel D, Shukla Y, Mathur N, Kumar Gupta Y, et al. Correlation of phthalate exposures with semen quality. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2008;231:1126.
  • 15
    Soliman AS, Vulimiri SV, Kleiner HE, Shen J, Eissa S, Morad M, et al. High levels of oxidative DNA damage in lymphocyte DNA of premenopausal breast cancer patients from Egypt. Int J Environ Health Res 2004;14:12134.
  • 16
    Soliman AS, Wang X, DiGiovanni J, Eissa S, Morad M, Vulimiri S, et al. Serum organochlorine levels and history of lactation in Egypt. Environ Res 2003;92:11017.
  • 17
    Dey S, Soliman AS, Merajver SD. Xenoestrogens may be the cause of high and increasing rates of hormone receptor positive breast cancer in the world. Med Hypotheses 2009;72:6526.
  • 18
    Dey S, Soliman AS, Hablas A, Seifeldin IA, Ismail K, Ramadan M, et al. Urban–rural differences in breast cancer incidence by hormone receptor status across 6 years in Egypt. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2009 [PMID: 19548084].
  • 19
    FreedmanLS, EdwardsBK, Ries LAG, YoungJL (eds). Cancer Incidence in Four Member Countries (Cyprus, Egypt, Israel, and Jordan) of the Middle East Cancer Consortium (MECC) compared with US SEER. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute, 2006 [NIH Pub. No. 06-5873].
  • 20
    IbrahimAS, IsmailK, HablasA, HusseinH, ElhamzawyH, RamadanM (eds). Cancer in Egypt, Gharbiah. Triennial Report of 2000–2002. Tanta, Egypt: Gharbiah Population-Based Cancer Registry, 2007.
  • 21
    CAPMAS Reports. []. Accessed 17 November 2009.
  • 22
    Key TJ, Pike MC. The dose-effect relationship between ‘unopposed’ oestrogens and endometrial mitotic rate: its central role in explaining and predicting endometrial cancer risk. Br J Cancer 1988;57:20512.
  • 23
    El-Zanaty F, Way A. Egypt Demographic and Health Survey 2005. Cairo, Egypt: Ministry of Health and Population, National Population Council, El-Zanaty and Associates, and ORC Macro, 2006.
  • 24
    Papaconstantinou AD, Umbreit TH, Fisher BR, Goering PL, Lappas NT, Brown KM. Bisphenol A-induced increase in uterine weight and alterations in uterine morphology in ovariectomized B6C3F1 mice: role of the estrogen receptor. Toxicol Sci 2000;56:33239.
  • 25
    Goloubkova T, Ribeiro MFM, Rodrigues LP, Cecconello AL, Spritzer PM. Effects of xenoestrogen bisphenol A on uterine and pituitary weight, serum prolactin levels and immunoreactive prolactin cells in ovariectomized Wistar rats. Arch Toxicol 2000;74:928.
  • 26
    Kaaks R, Lukanova A, Kurzer MS. Obesity, endogenous hormones, and endometrial cancer risk: a synthetic review. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2002;11:153143.
  • 27
    EMRO, World Health Organization Country Profiles. Egypt. []. Accessed: 18 September 2008.
  • 28
    Fathalla MF. Factors in the causation and incidence of ovarian cancer. Obstet Gynecol Surv 1972;27:75168.
  • 29
    Casagrande JT, Louie EW, Pike MC, Roy S, Ross RK, Henderson BE. ‘Incessant ovulation’ and ovarian cancer. Lancet 1979;2:1703.