• 1
    O’Leary CM. Fetal alcohol syndrome: diagnosis, epidemiology, and developmental outcomes. J Paediatr Child Health 2004;40:27.
  • 2
    Olson HC, Streissguth AP, Sampson PD, Barr HM, Bookstein FL, Thiede K. Association of prenatal alcohol exposure with behavioral and learning problems in early adolescence. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1997;36:118794.
  • 3
    Williams J, Ross L. Consequences of prenatal toxin exposure for mental health in children and adolescents. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2007;16:24353.
  • 4
    Sampson PD, Streissguth AP, Bookstein FL, Barr HM. On categorizations in analyses of alcohol teratogenesis. Environ Health Perspect 2000;108(Suppl 3):4218.
  • 5
    Linnet KM, Dalsgaard S, Obel C, Wisborg K, Henriksen TB, Rodriguez A, et al. Maternal lifestyle factors in pregnancy risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and associated behaviors: review of the current evidence. Am J Psychiatry 2003;160:102840.
  • 6
    Sood B, Delaney-Black V, Covington C, Nordstrom-Klee B, Ager J, templin T, et al. Prenatal alcohol exposure and childhood behavior at age 6 to 7 years: I. dose-response effect. Pediatrics 2001;108:E34.
  • 7
    Sayal K, Heron J, Golding J, Emond A. Prenatal alcohol exposure and gender differences in childhood mental health problems: a longitudinal population-based study. Pediatrics 2007;119:E42634.
  • 8
    Johnson CH, Vicary JR, Heist CL, Corneal DA. Moderate alcohol and tobacco use during pregnancy and child behavior outcomes. J Prim Prev 2001;21:36779.
  • 9
    Turner C. How much alcohol is in a ‘standard drink’? An analysis of 125 studies Addiction 1990;85:11715.
  • 10
    Colvin L, Payne J, Parsons D, Kurinczuk JJ, Bower C. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy in nonindigenous West Australian women. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2007;31:27684.
  • 11
    Newnham JP, Evans SF, Michael CA, Stanley FJ, Landau LI. Effects of frequent ultrasound during pregnancy: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 1993;342:88791.
  • 12
    Williams L, Evans SF, Newnham JP. Prospective cohort study of factors influencing the relative weights of the placenta and the newborn infant. BMJ 1997;314:18648.
  • 13
    Li J, Kendall GE, Henderson S, Downie J, Landsborough L, Oddy WH. Maternal psychosocial wellbeing in pregnancy and breastfeeding duration. Acta Paediatr 2008;97:2215.
  • 14
    Kendall GE. Children in families in communities: a modified conceptual framework and an analytic strategy for identifying patterns of factors associated with developmental health outcomes in childhood. PhD thesis, The University of Western Australia, 2003.
  • 15
    Achenbach TM, Edelbrock C, Howell CT. Empirically based assessment of the behavioural/emotional problems of 2- and 3-year-old children. J Abnorm Child Psychol 1987;15:62950.
  • 16
    Achenbach TM. Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist/4–18 and 1991 Profile. Burlington: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry, 1991.
  • 17
    Zubrick S, Silburn S, Gurrin L, Teoh H, Shepherd C, Carlton J, et al. Western Australian Child Health Survey: Education, Health and Competence. Perth, Western Australia: Australian Bureau of Statistics and the Telethon Institute for Child Health Research (ISBN 0 642 17239 0); 1997.
  • 18
    Pols RG, Hawks DV. Is there a safe level of daily consumption of alcohol for men and women? Recommendations regarding responsible drinking behaviour. Canberra: National Health and Medical Research Council, Australian Government Publishing Service, 1987.
  • 19
    Kelly Y, Sacker A, Gray R, Kelly J, Wolke D, Quigley MA. Light drinking in pregnancy, a risk for behavioural problems and cognitive deficits at 3 years of age? Int J Epidemiol 2009;38:12940.
  • 20
    Robinson M, Oddy WH, Li J, Kendall GE, de Klerk NH, Silbrun SR, et al. Pre- and postnatal influences on preschool mental health: a large-scale cohort study. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2008;49:111828.
  • 21
    Epstein N, Baldwin L, Bishop D. The McMaster family assessment device. J Marital Fam Ther 1983;9:17180.
  • 22
    Streissguth AP, Barr HM, Sampson PD, Bookstein FL. Prenatal alcohol and offspring development: the first fourteen years. Drug Alcohol Depend 1994;36:8999.
  • 23
    Barr HM, Darby BL, Streissguth AP, Sampson PD. Prenatal exposure to alcohol, caffeine, tobacco, and aspirin – effects on fine and gross motor-performance in 4-year-old children. Dev Psychol 1990;26:33948.
  • 24
    Warnick EM, Bracken MB, Kasl S. Screening efficiency of the child behavior checklist and strengths and difficulties questionnaire: a systematic review. Child Adolesc Ment Health 2008;13:1407.
  • 25
    Huizink AC, Mulder EJ. Maternal smoking, drinking or cannabis use during pregnancy and neurobehavioral and cognitive functioning in human offspring. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2006;30:2441.
  • 26
    Sayal K, Heron J, Golding J, Alati R, Smith GD, Gray R, et al. Binge pattern of alcohol consumption during pregnancy and childhood mental health outcomes: longitudinal population-based study. Pediatrics 2009;123:e28996.
  • 27
    Alati R, Macleod J, Hickman M, Sayal K, May M, Smith GD, et al. Intrauterine exposure to alcohol and tobacco use and childhood IQ: findings from a parental-offspring comparison within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Pediatr Res 2008;64:65966.
  • 28
    Wolke D, Waylen A, Samara M, Steer C, Goodman R, Ford T, et al. Selective drop-out in longitudinal studies and non-biased prediction of behaviour disorders. Br J Psychiatry 2009;195:24956.
  • 29
    Ahluwalia IB, Mack KA, Mokdad A. Mental and physical distress and high-risk behaviors among reproductive-age women. Obstet Gynecol 2004;104:47783.
  • 30
    Seguin L, Potvin L, St-Denis M, Loiselle J. Chronic stressors, social support, and depression during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 1995;85:5839.
  • 31
    Stranges S, Notaro J, Freudenheim JL, Calogero RM, Muti P, Farinaro E, et al. Alcohol drinking pattern and subjective health in a population-based study. Addiction 2006;101:126576.
  • 32
    Peele S, Brodsky A. Exploring psychological benefits associated with moderate alcohol use: a necessary corrective to assessments of drinking outcomes? Drug Alcohol Depend 2000;60:22147.
  • 33
    Vaillant GE. The Natural History of Alcohol Revisited. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995.
  • 34
    Finkenauer C, Engels R, Baumeister RF. Parenting behaviour and adolescent behavioural and emotional problems: the role of self-control. Int J Behav Dev 2005;29:5869.
  • 35
    Lindberg ML, Amsterdam EA. Alcohol, wine and cardiovascular health. Clin Cardiol 2008;31:34751.
  • 36
    O’Connor TG, Heron J, Golding J, Beveridge M, Glover V. Maternal antenatal anxiety and children’s behavioural/emotional problems at 4 years: report from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Br J Psychiatry 2002;180:5028.
  • 37
    Newnham JP, Pennell CE, Lye SJ, Rampono J, Challis JRG. Early life origins of obesity. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 2009;36:22744.
  • 38
    Holman CD, English DR, Milne E, Winter MG. Meta-analysis of alcohol and all-cause mortality: a validation of NHMRC recommendations. Med J Aust 1996;164:1415.
  • 39
    McElduff P, Dobson AJ. How much alcohol and how often? Population based case–control study of alcohol consumption and risk of a major coronary event BMJ 1997;314:115964.
  • 40
    Rice F, Harold GT, Boivin J, Hay DF, van den Bree M, Thapar A. Disentangling prenatal and inherited influences in humans with an experimental design. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2009;106:24647.
  • 41
    Thapar A, Rice F, Hay D, Boivin J, Langley K, van den Bree M, et al. Prenatal smoking might not cause attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: evidence from a novel design. Biol Psychiatry 2009;66:7227.
  • 42
    Freathy RM, Ring SM, Shields B, Galobardes B, Knight B, Weedon MN, et al. A common genetic variant in the 15q24 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene cluster (CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4) is associated with a reduced ability of women to quit smoking in pregnancy. Hum Mol Genet 2009;18:29227.
  • 43
    Pirie PL, Lando H, Curry SJ, McBride CM, Grothaus LC. Tobacco, alcohol, and caffeine use and cessation in early pregnancy. Am J Prev Med 2000;18:5461.