SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    World Health Organization. Epidemiology of chickenpox. 1977–1990. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 1992;67:1189.
  • 2
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevention of varicella. Update recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep 1999;48:15.
  • 3
    Lolekha S, Tanthiphabha W, Sornchai P, Kosuwan P, Sutra S, Warachit B, et al. Effect of climatic factors and population density on varicella zoster virus epidemiology within a tropical country. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2001;64:1316.
  • 4
    Lee BW. Review of varicella zoster seroepidemiology in India and Southeast Asia. Trop Med Int Health 1998;3:88690.
  • 5
    Fairley CK, Miller E. Varicella-zoster virus epidemiology – a changing scene? J Infect Dis 1996;174(Suppl 3):S3149.
  • 6
    Enders G, Miller E. Varicella and herpes zoster in pregnancy and the newborn. In: ArvinAM, GershonAA, editors. Varicella-Zoster Virus Virology and Clinical Management. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2000. pp. 31747.
  • 7
    Gray GC, Palinkas LA, Kelley PW. Increasing incidence of varicella hospitalizations in United States Army and Navy personnel: are today’s teenagers more susceptible? Should recruits be vaccinated? Pediatrics 1990;86:86773.
  • 8
    Leikin E, Figueroa R, Bertkau A, Lysikiewicz A, Visintainer P, Tejani N. Seronegativity to varicella-zoster virus in a tertiary care obstetric population. Obstet Gynecol 1997;90:5113.
  • 9
    Miller E, Vardien J, Farrington P. Shift in age in chickenpox. Lancet 1993;341:3089.
  • 10
    Morgan-Capner P, Crowcroft NS. Guidelines on the management of, and exposure to, rash illness in pregnancy (including consideration of relevant antibody screening programmes in pregnancy). Commun Dis Public Health 2002;5:5971.
  • 11
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Decline in annual incidence of varicella – selected states, 1990–2001. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2003;52:8845.
  • 12
    Kido S, Ozaki T, Asada H, Higashi K, Kondo K, Hayakawa Y, et al. Detection of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) DNA in clinical samples from patients with VZV by the polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Microbiol 1991;29:769.
  • 13
    Gershon AA. Varicella-zoster virus: prospects for control. Adv Pediatr Infect Dis 1995;10:93124.
  • 14
    Hall S, Maupin T, Seward J, Jumaan AO, Peterson C, Goldman G, et al. Second varicella infections: are they more common than previously thought? Pediatrics 2002;109:106873.
  • 15
    Paryani SG, Arvin AM. Intrauterine infection with varicella-zoster virus after maternal varicella. N Engl J Med 1986;314:15426.
  • 16
    Martin KA, Junker AK, Thomas EE, Van Allen MI, Friedman JM. Occurrence of chickenpox during pregnancy in women seropositive for varicella-zoster virus. J Infect Dis 1994;170:9915.
  • 17
    Jones KL, Johnson KA, Chambers CD. Offspring of women infected with varicella during pregnancy: a prospective study. Teratology 1994;49:2932.
  • 18
    Pastuszak AL, Levy M, Schick B, Zuber C, Feldkamp M, Gladstone J, et al. Outcome after maternal varicella infection in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy. N Engl J Med 1994;330:9015.
  • 19
    Siegel M. Congenital malformations following chickenpox, measles, mumps, and hepatitis. Results of a cohort study. J Am Med Assoc 1973;226:15214.
  • 20
    Sauerbrei A, Wutzler P. Varicella-zoster virus infections during pregnancy: epidemiology, clinical symptoms, diagnosis, prevention and therapy. Curr Pediatr Rev 2005;1:20515.
  • 21
    Sauerbrei A, Wutzler P. Das fetale Varizellen-syndrome. Monatsschr Kinderheilkd 2003;151:20913.
  • 22
    Birthistle K, Carrington D. Fetal varicella syndrome – a reappraisal of the literature. A review prepared for the UK Advisory Group on Chickenpox on behalf of the British Society for the Study of Infection. J Infect 1998;36(Suppl 1):259.
  • 23
    Schulze A, Dietzsch HJ. The natural history of varicella embryopathy: a 25-year follow-up. J Pediatr 2000;137:8714.
  • 24
    Prober CG, Gershon AA, Grose C, McCracken GH Jr, Nelson JD. Consensus: varicella-zoster infections in pregnancy and the perinatal period. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1990;9:8659.
  • 25
    Tan MP, Koren G. Chickenpox in pregnancy: revisited. Reprod Toxicol 2006;21:41020.
  • 26
    Cotlier E. Congenital varicella cataract. Am J Ophthalmol 1978;86:6279.
  • 27
    Scheffer IE, Baraitser M, Brett EM. Severe microcephaly associated with congenital varicella infection. Dev Med Child Neurol 1991;33:91620.
  • 28
    Andreou A, Basiakos H, Hatzikoumi I, Lazarides A. Fetal varicella syndrome with manifestations limited to the eye. Am J Perinatol 1995;12:3478.
  • 29
    Mattson SN, Jones KL, Gramling LJ, Schonfeld AM, Riley EP, Harris JA, et al. Neurodevelopmental follow-up of children of women infected with varicella during pregnancy: a prospective study. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2003;22:81923.
  • 30
    Higa K, Dan K, Manabe H. Varicella-zoster virus infections during pregnancy: hypothesis concerning the mechanisms of congenital malformations. Obstet Gynecol 1987;69:21422.
  • 31
    Grose C. Congenital varicella-zoster virus infection and the failure to establish virus-specific cell-mediated immunity. Mol Biol Med 1989;6:45362.
  • 32
    Mustonen K, Mustakangas P, Valanne L, Professor MH, Koskiniemi M. Congenital varicella-zoster virus infection after maternal subclinical infection: clinical and neuropathological findings. J Perinatol 2001;21:1416.
  • 33
    Alkalay AL, Pomerance JJ, Rimoin DL. Fetal varicella syndrome. J Pediatr 1987;111:3203.
  • 34
    Enders G, Miller E, Cradock-Watson J, Bolley I, Ridehalgh M. Consequences of varicella and herpes zoster in pregnancy: prospective study of 1739 cases. Lancet 1994;343:154851.
  • 35
    Sauerbrei A, Muller D, Eichhorn U, Wutzler P. Detection of varicella-zoster virus in congenital varicella syndrome: a case report. Obstet Gynecol 1996;88:6879.
  • 36
    Johansson AB, Rassart A, Blum D, Van BD, Liesnard C. Lower-limb hypoplasia due to intrauterine infection with herpes simplex virus type 2: possible confusion with intrauterine varicella-zoster syndrome. Clin Infect Dis 2004;38:e5762.
  • 37
    Koskimies O, Lapinleimu K, Saxen L. Infections and other maternal factors as risk indicators for congenital malformations: a case–control study with paired serum samples. Pediatrics 1978;61:8327.
  • 38
    Sauerbrei A, Gluck B, Jung K, Bittrich H, Wutzler P. Congenital skin lesions caused by intrauterine infection with coxsackievirus B3. Infection 2000;28:3268.
  • 39
    Al-Katawee YA, Al-Hasoun YA, Taha MN, Al-Moslem K. Congenital varicella-zoster virus infection. A rare case of severe brain and ocular malformations without limb or cutaneous involvement in a newborn after maternal subclinical infection. Saudi Med J 2005;26:86971.
  • 40
    Kerkering KW. Abnormal cry and intracranial calcifications: clues to the diagnosis of fetal varicella-zoster syndrome. J Perinatol 2001;21: 1315.
  • 41
    Bruder E, Ersch J, Hebisch G, Ehrbar T, Klimkait T, Stallmach T. Fetal varicella syndrome: disruption of neural development and persistent inflammation of non-neural tissues. Virchows Arch 2000;437:4404.
  • 42
    Petignat P, Vial Y, Laurini R, Hohlfeld P. Fetal varicella-herpes zoster syndrome in early pregnancy: ultrasonographic and morphological correlation. Prenat Diagn 2001;21:1214.
  • 43
    Pretorius DH, Hayward I, Jones KL, Stamm E. Sonographic evaluation of pregnancies with maternal varicella infection. J Ultrasound Med 1992;11:45963.
  • 44
    Sauerbrei A, Wutzler P. The congenital varicella syndrome. J Perinatol 2000;20:54854.
  • 45
    Miller E, Cradock-Watson JE, Ridehalgh MK. Outcome in newborn babies given anti-varicella-zoster immunoglobulin after perinatal maternal infection with varicella-zoster virus. Lancet 1989;2:3713.
  • 46
    Sever J, White LR. Intrauterine viral infections. Annu Rev Med 1968;19:47186.
  • 47
    Miller E, Marshall R, Vurdien J. Epidemiology, outcome and control of varicella-zoster infection. Rev Med Microbiol 1993;4:22230.
  • 48
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Varicella-related deaths among adults – United States, 1997. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1997;46:40912.
  • 49
    Gardella C, Brown ZA. Managing varicella zoster infection in pregnancy. Cleve Clin J Med 2007;74:2906.
  • 50
    Rawson H, Crampin A, Noah N. Deaths from chickenpox in England and Wales 1995–7: analysis of routine mortality data. BMJ 2001;323:10913.
  • 51
    Cox SM, Cunningham FG, Luby J. Management of varicella pneumonia complicating pregnancy. Am J Perinatol 1990;7:3001.
  • 52
    Greffe BS, Dooley SL, Deddish RB, Krasny HC. Transplacental passage of acyclovir. J Pediatr 1986;108:10201.
  • 53
    Landsberger EJ, Hager WD, Grossman JH III. Successful management of varicella pneumonia complicating pregnancy. A report of three cases. J Reprod Med 1986;31:3114.
  • 54
    Sauerbrei A, Wutzler P. Neonatal varicella. J Perinatol 2001;21:5459.
  • 55
    Chandra PC, Patel H, Schiavello HJ, Briggs SL. Successful pregnancy outcome after complicated varicella pneumonia. Obstet Gynecol 1998;92:6802.
  • 56
    Harger JH, Ernest JM, Thurnau GR, Moawad A, Momirova V, Landon MB, et al. Risk factors and outcome of varicella-zoster virus pneumonia in pregnant women. J Infect Dis 2002;185:4227.
  • 57
    Schutte TJ, Rogers LC, Copas PR. Varicella pneumonia complicating pregnancy: a report of seven cases. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol 1996;4:33846.
    Direct Link:
  • 58
    Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Chickenpox in Pregnancy. Green-Top Guideline No. 13. London: Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, 2010.
  • 59
    Nathwani D, Maclean A, Conway S, Carrington D. Varicella infections in pregnancy and the newborn. A review prepared for the UK Advisory Group on Chickenpox on behalf of the British Society for the Study of Infection. J Infect 1998;36(Suppl 1):5971.
  • 60
    Ehrlich RM, Turner JA, Clarke M. Neonatal varicella; a case report with isolation of the virus. J Pediatr 1958;53:13947.
  • 61
    Meyers JD. Congenital varicella in term infants: risk reconsidered. J Infect Dis 1974;129:2157.
  • 62
    Gershon AA. Varicella in mother and infants: problems old and new. In: KrugmanS, GershonAA, editors. Infections of the Fetus and the Newborn Infant: Progress in Clinical and Biological Research, Vol. 3. New York: Alan R Liss Inc.; 1985. pp. 7985.
  • 63
    Baba K, Yabuuchi H, Takahashi M, Ogra PL. Immunologic and epidemiologic aspects of varicella infection acquired during infancy and early childhood. J Pediatr 1982;100:8815.
  • 64
    Heidl M. Varicella-Zoster-Virus-Infektion in der Schwangerschaft, beim Neugeborenen und jungen Saugling. Z Klin Med 1985;40:24550.
  • 65
    Akisu M, Yalaz M, Aksu G, Arslanoglu S, Genel F, Kutukculer N, et al. Maternally acquired varicella-zoster virus antibodies disappear at 6 months of age in prematurely born children. Panminerva Med 2003;45:1556.
  • 66
    Gershon AA, Raker R, Steinberg S, Topf-Olstein B, Drusin LM. Antibody to varicella-zoster virus in parturient women and their offspring during the first year of life. Pediatrics 1976;58:6926.
  • 67
    Ferson MJ. Varicella vaccine in post-exposure prophylaxis. Commun Dis Intell 2001;25:135.
  • 68
    Watson B, Seward J, Yang A, Witte P, Lutz J, Chan C, et al. Postexposure effectiveness of varicella vaccine. Pediatrics 2000;105:848.
  • 69
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevention of varicella: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MMWR Recomm Rep 1996;45:136.
  • 70
    Australian Technical Advisory Group on Immunisation. The Australian Immunisation Handbook, 9th edn. Canberra: Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing, Office of Health Protection; 2008.
  • 71
    American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Infectious Diseases. Varicella vaccine update. Pediatrics 2000;105:13641.
  • 72
    Shields KE, Galil K, Seward J, Sharrar RG, Cordero JF, Slater E. Varicella vaccine exposure during pregnancy: data from the first 5 years of the pregnancy registry. Obstet Gynecol 2001;98:149.
  • 73
    Salzman MB, Sharrar RG, Steinberg S, LaRussa P. Transmission of varicella-vaccine virus from a healthy 12-month-old child to his pregnant mother. J Pediatr 1997;131:1514.
  • 74
    Watson B. Varicella: a vaccine preventable disease? J Infect 2002;44:2205.
  • 75
    Vazquez M, Shapiro ED. Varicella vaccine and infection with varicella-zoster virus. N Engl J Med 2005;352:43940.
  • 76
    Bohlke K, Galil K, Jackson LA, Schmid DS, Starkovich P, Loparev VN, et al. Postpartum varicella vaccination: is the vaccine virus excreted in breast milk? Obstet Gynecol 2003;102:9707.
  • 77
    Dolbear GL. A pilot study: is attenuated varicella virus present in breast milk after postpartum immunization? Obstet Gynecol 2003;101(Suppl 4):47S.
  • 78
    Daley AJ, Thorpe S, Garland SM. Varicella and the pregnant woman: prevention and management. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2008;48:2633.
  • 79
    Smith WJ, Jackson LA, Watts DH, Koepsell TD. Prevention of chickenpox in reproductive-age women: cost-effectiveness of routine prenatal screening with postpartum vaccination of susceptibles. Obstet Gynecol 1998;92:53545.
  • 80
    Frenkel LM, Brown ZA, Bryson YJ, Corey L, Unadkat JD, Hensleigh PA, et al. Pharmacokinetics of acyclovir in the term human pregnancy and neonate. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1991;164:56976.
  • 81
    Kimberlin DF, Weller S, Whitley RJ, Andrews WW, Hauth JC, Lakeman F, et al. Pharmacokinetics of oral valacyclovir and acyclovir in late pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1998;179:84651.
  • 82
    Beutner KR. Valacyclovir: a review of its antiviral activity, pharmacokinetic properties, and clinical efficacy. Antiviral Res 1995;28:28190.
  • 83
    Huang YC, Lin TY, Lin YJ, Lien RI, Chou YH. Prophylaxis of intravenous immunoglobulin and acyclovir in perinatal varicella. Eur J Pediatr 2001;160:914.
  • 84
    Mori T, Komori S, Fukuda Y, Naito S, Tanaka H, Koyama K. The primary varicella infection near term: a case report. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2003;268:12830.
  • 85
    Suga S, Yoshikawa T, Ozaki T, Asano Y. Effect of oral acyclovir against primary and secondary viraemia in incubation period of varicella. Arch Dis Child 1993;69:63942.
  • 86
    Wallace MR, Bowler WA, Murray NB, Brodine SK, Oldfield EC III. Treatment of adult varicella with oral acyclovir. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1992;117:35863.
  • 87
    Mohsen AH, McKendrick M. Varicella pneumonia in adults. Eur Respir J 2003;21:88691.
  • 88
    Smego RA Jr, Asperilla MO. Use of acyclovir for varicella pneumonia during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 1991;78:11126.
  • 89
    Haddad J, Simeoni U, Paira M, Lokiec F, Messer J, Willard D. Transplacental passage of acyclovir. Presse Med 1987;16:1864.
  • 90
    Ogilvie MM. Antiviral prophylaxis and treatment in chickenpox. A review prepared for the UK Advisory Group on Chickenpox on behalf of the British Society for the Study of Infection. J Infect 1998;36(Suppl 1):318.
  • 91
    McIntosh D, Isaacs D. Varicella zoster virus infection in pregnancy. Arch Dis Child 1993;68:12.
  • 92
    Sauerbrei A, Pawlak J, Luger C, Wutzler P. Intracerebral varicella-zoster virus reactivation in congenital varicella syndrome. Dev Med Child Neurol 2003;45:83740.
  • 93
    Schulze-Oechtering F, Roth B, Enders G, Grosser R. Congenital varicella syndrome – is it infectious? Z Geburtshilfe Neonatol 2004;208:258.
  • 94
    Ratanajamit C, Vinther SM, Jepsen P, Chongsuvivatwong V, Olsen J, Sorensen HT. Adverse pregnancy outcome in women exposed to acyclovir during pregnancy: a population-based observational study. Scand J Infect Dis 2003;35:2559.
  • 95
    Stone KM, Reiff-Eldridge R, White AD, Cordero JF, Brown Z, Alexander ER, et al. Pregnancy outcomes following systemic prenatal acyclovir exposure: conclusions from the international acyclovir pregnancy registry, 1984–1999. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2004;70:2017.
  • 96
    Kimberlin DW, Lin CY, Jacobs RF, Powell DA, Frenkel LM, Gruber WC, et al. Natural history of neonatal herpes simplex virus infections in the acyclovir era. Pediatrics 2001;108:2239.
  • 97
    Sheffield JS, Hill JB, Hollier LM, Laibl VR, Roberts SW, Sanchez PJ, et al. Valacyclovir prophylaxis to prevent recurrent herpes at delivery: a randomized clinical trial. Obstet Gynecol 2006;108:1417.
  • 98
    Tyring SK, Baker D, Snowden W. Valacyclovir for herpes simplex virus infection: long-term safety and sustained efficacy after 20 years’ experience with acyclovir. J Infect Dis 2002;186(Suppl 1):S406.
  • 99
    Brunell PA, Ross A, Miller LH, Kuo B. Prevention of varicella by zoster immune globulin. N Engl J Med 1969;280:11914.
  • 100
    Heuchan AM, Isaacs D. The management of varicella-zoster virus exposure and infection in pregnancy and the newborn period. Australasian Subgroup in Paediatric Infectious Diseases of the Australasian Society for Infectious Diseases. Med J Aust 2001;174:28892.
  • 101
    Brunell PA. Varicella in pregnancy, the fetus, and the newborn: problems in management. J Infect Dis 1992;166(Suppl 1):S427.
  • 102
    Grose C. Varicella vaccination of children in the United States: assessment after the first decade 1995–2005. J Clin Virol 2005;33:8995.
  • 103
    Salisbury D, Ramsay M, Noakes K. Immunisation Against Infectious Disease – The Green Book, 3rd edn. London: The Department of Health; 2006.
  • 104
    Grose C. Varicella infection during pregnancy. Herpes 1999;6:337.
  • 105
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A new product (VariZIG) for postexposure prophylaxis of varicella available under an investigational new drug application expanded access protocol. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2006;55:20910.
  • 106
    Sauerbrei A, Wutzler P. Herpes simplex and varicella-zoster virus infections during pregnancy: current concepts of prevention, diagnosis and therapy. Part 2: Varicella-zoster virus infections. Med Microbiol Immunol 2007;196:95102.
  • 107
    Koren G, Money D, Boucher M, Aoki F, Petric M, Innocencion G, et al. Serum concentrations, efficacy, and safety of a new, intravenously administered varicella zoster immune globulin in pregnant women. J Clin Pharmacol 2002;42:26774.
  • 108
    Carter-Spaulding DE. Varicella infection in pregnancy. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 2001;30:66773.
  • 109
    Paulman PM, McLellan R. Varicella during pregnancy: the timing of effective treatment. J Am Board Fam Pract 1990;3:1213.
  • 110
    Zieger W, Friese K, Weigel M, Becker KP, Melchert F. Varicella infection at birth. Z Geburtshilfe Perinatol 1994;198:1347.
  • 111
    Brown NW, Parsons AP, Kam PC. Anaesthetic considerations in a parturient with varicella presenting for caesarean section. Anaesthesia 2003;58:10925.
  • 112
    Miller E. Varicella zoster virus infection in pregnancy. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 1994;70:F1578.
  • 113
    Holland P, Isaacs D, Moxon ER. Fatal neonatal varicella infection. Lancet 1986;2:1156.
  • 114
    King SM, Gorensek M, Ford-Jones EL, Read SE. Fatal varicella-zoster infection in a newborn treated with varicella-zoster immunoglobulin. Pediatr Infect Dis 1986;5:5889.
  • 115
    Lipton SV, Brunell PA. Management of varicella exposure in a neonatal intensive care unit. J Am Med Assoc 1989;261:17824.