• 1
    Ahluwalia IB, Grummer-Strawn L, Scanlon KS. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and birth outcome: increased effects on pregnant women aged 30 years or older. Am J Epidemiol 1997;146:427.
  • 2
    Blake KV, Gurrin LC, Evans SF, Beilin LJ, Landau LI, Stanley FJ, et al. Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy, low birth weight and subsequent blood pressure in early childhood. Early Hum Dev 2000;57:13747.
  • 3
    Higgins S. Smoking in pregnancy. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2002;14:14551.
  • 4
    Nabet C, Ancel PY, Burguet A, Kaminski M. Smoking during pregnancy and preterm birth according to obstetric history: French national perinatal surveys. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2005;19:8896.
  • 5
    Hamilton BE, Martin JA, Sutton PD. Births: preliminary data for 2003. Natl Vital Stat Rep 2004;53:117.
  • 6
    Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Smoking during pregnancy—United States, 1990–2002. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2004;53:9115.
  • 7
    Tong VT, Jones JR, Dietz PM, D’Angelo D, Bombard JM. Trends in smoking before, during, and after pregnancy – Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), United States, 31 sites, 2000–2005. MMWR Surveill Summ 2009;58:129.
  • 8
    2008 PHS Guideline Panel, Liaisons, and Staff. Treating tobacco use and dependence: 2008 update U.S. Public Health Service Clinical Practice Guideline executive summary. Res Care 2008;53:121722.
  • 9
    Fiore MC, Jaen CR, Baker WC, Benowitz NL, Curry SJ. Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence: 2008 Update. Clinical Practice Guideline. Rockville, MD: Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service, 2008. 8-1-2010.
  • 10
    Papadakis S, McDonald P, Mullen KA, Reid R, Skulsky K, Pipe A. Strategies to increase the delivery of smoking cessation treatments in primary care settings: a systematic review & meta-analysis. Prev Med 2010;51:199213.
  • 11
    Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. Ann Intern Med 2009;151:2649.
  • 12
    Mottillo S, Filion KB, Belisle P, Joseph L, Gervais A, O’Loughlin J, et al. Behavioural interventions for smoking cessation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Eur Heart J 2009;30:71830.
  • 13
    Rushton L. Health impact of environmental tobacco smoke in the home. Rev Environ Health 2004;19:291309.
  • 14
    Cahill K, Stead LF, Lancaster T. Nicotine receptor partial agonists for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008;3:CD006103.
  • 15
    Bax L, Yu LM, Ikeda N, Tsuruta H, Moons KG. Development and validation of MIX: comprehensive free software for meta-analysis of causal research data. BMC Med Res Methodol 2006;6:50.
  • 16
    Bax L, Yu LM, Ikeda N, Tsuruta H, Moons KG. MIX: comprehensive free software for meta-analysis of causal research data. Version 1.7. [] info 2008. Last accessed 27 June 2011
  • 17
    Malchodi CS, Oncken C, Dornelas EA, Caramanica L, Gregonis E, Curry SL. The effects of peer counseling on smoking cessation and reduction. Obstet Gynecol 2003;101:50410.
  • 18
    Secker-Walker RH, Solomon LJ, Flynn BS, Skelly JM, Lepage SS, Goodwin GD, et al. Individualized smoking cessation counseling during prenatal and early postnatal care. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1994;171:134755.
  • 19
    Secker-Walker RH, Solomon LJ, Flynn BS, Skelly JM, Mead PB. Reducing smoking during pregnancy and postpartum: physician’s advice supported by individual counseling. Prev Med 1998;27:42230.
  • 20
    Tappin DM, Lumsden MA, Gilmour WH, Crawford F, McIntyre D, Stone DH, et al. Randomised controlled trial of home based motivational interviewing by midwives to help pregnant smokers quit or cut down. BMJ 2005;331:3737.
  • 21
    Tappin DM, Lumsden MA, McIntyre D, Mckay C, Gilmour WH, Webber R, et al. A pilot study to establish a randomized trial methodology to test the efficacy of a behavioural intervention. Health Educ Res 2000;15:491502.
  • 22
    Ruger JP, Weinstein MC, Hammond SK, Kearney MH, Emmons KM. Cost-effectiveness of motivational interviewing for smoking cessation and relapse prevention among low-income pregnant women: a randomized controlled trial. Value Health 2008;11:1918.
  • 23
    Rigotti NA, Park ER, Regan S, Chang Y, Perry K, Loudin B, et al. Efficacy of telephone counseling for pregnant smokers: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol 2006;108:8392.
  • 24
    Bullock L, Everett KD, Mullen PD, Geden E, Longo DR, Madsen R. Baby BEEP: a randomized controlled trial of nurses’ individualized social support for poor rural pregnant smokers. Matern Child Health J 2009;13:395406.
  • 25
    ACOG Committee on Health for Undeserved Women; ACOG Committee on Obstetric Practice. ACOG committee opinion. Number 316, October 2005. Smoking cessation during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 2005;106:8838.
  • 26
    Eisenberg MJ, Filion KB, Yavin D, Belisle P, Mottillo S, Joseph L, et al. Pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. CMAJ 2008;179:13544.
  • 27
    Solomon L, Quinn V. Spontaneous quitting: self-initiated smoking cessation in early pregnancy. Nicotine Tob Res 2004;6(Suppl 2):S20316.
  • 28
    Berg CJ, Park ER, Chang Y, Rigotti NA. Is concern about post-cessation weight gain a barrier to smoking cessation among pregnant women? Nicotine Tob Res 2008;10:115963.
  • 29
    Levine MD, Marcus MD, Kalarchian MA, Weissfeld L, Qin L. Weight concerns affect motivation to remain abstinent from smoking postpartum. Ann Behav Med 2006;32:14753.
  • 30
    Ingall G, Cropley M. Exploring the barriers of quitting smoking during pregnancy: a systematic review of qualitative studies. Women Birth 2010;23:4552.
  • 31
    Osadchy A, Kazmin A, Koren G. Nicotine replacement therapy during pregnancy: recommended or not recommended? J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2009;31:7447.
  • 32
    Dempsey DA, Benowitz NL. Risks and benefits of nicotine to aid smoking cessation in pregnancy. Drug Saf 2001;24:277322.
  • 33
    Herbert R, Coleman T, Britton J. U.K. general practitioners’ beliefs, attitudes, and reported prescribing of nicotine replacement therapy in pregnancy. Nicotine Tob Res 2005;7:5416.
  • 34
    Coleman T. Recommendations for the use of pharmacological smoking cessation strategies in pregnant women. CNS Drugs 2007;21:98393.
  • 35
    CAN-ADAPTT’s Clinical Practice Guideline Development Group. Specific populations: pregnant and breastfeeding women. []. Last accessed 21 September 2010.
  • 36
    Pollak KI, Oncken CA, Lipkus IM, Lyna P, Swamy GK, Pletsch PK, et al. Nicotine replacement and behavioral therapy for smoking cessation in pregnancy. Am J Prev Med 2007;33:297305.
  • 37
    Oncken C, Dornelas E, Greene J, Sankey H, Glasmann A, Feinn R, et al. Nicotine gum for pregnant smokers: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol 2008;112:85967.
  • 38
    Tough SC, Clarke M, Hicks M, Cook J. Pre-conception practices among family physicians and obstetrician-gynaecologists: results from a national survey. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2006;28:7808.
  • 39
    Lumley J, Chamberlain C, Dowswell T, Oliver S, Oakley L, Watson L. Interventions for promoting smoking cessation during pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009;3:CD001055.
  • 40
    Dennis CL, Kingston D. A systematic review of telephone support for women during pregnancy and the early postpartum period. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 2008;37:30114.
  • 41
    Mullen PD. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and evidence-based intervention to promote cessation. Prim Care 1999;26:57789.
  • 42
    Windsor RA, Boyd NR, Orleans CT. A meta-evaluation of smoking cessation intervention research among pregnant women: improving the science and art. Health Educ Res 1998;13:41938.
  • 43
    Kendrick JS, Zahniser SC, Miller N, Salas N, Stine J, Gargiullo PM, et al. Integrating smoking cessation into routine public prenatal care: the Smoking Cessation in Pregnancy project. Am J Public Health 1995;85:21722.