• 1
    Stanton C, Lawn JE, Rahman H, Wilczynska-Ketende K, Hill K. Stillbirth rates: delivering estimates in 190 countries. Lancet 2006;367:148794.
  • 2
    Lawn JE, Gravett MG, Nunes TM, Rubens CE, Stanton C. Global report on preterm birth and stillbirth (1 of 7): definitions, description of the burden and opportunities to improve data. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2010;10 (Suppl 1):S1.
  • 3
    Lawn JE, Yakoob MY, Haws RA, Soomro T, Darmstadt GL, Bhutta ZA. 3.2 million stillbirths: epidemiology and overview of the evidence review. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2009;9 (Suppl 1):S2.
  • 4
    World Health Organization. Perinatal and Neonatal Mortality for the Year 2000: Country, Regional and Global Estimates. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 2006.
  • 5
    United Nations Millennium Development Goals. 2010 []. Last accessed 27 February 2011.
  • 6
    Froen JF, Gordijn SJ, Abdel-Aleem H, Bergsjø P, Betran A, Duke CW, et al. Making stillbirths count, making numbers talk – issues in data collection for stillbirths. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2009;9:58.
  • 7
    Kramer MS, Liu S, Luo Z, Yuan H, Platt RW, Joseph KS. Analysis of perinatal mortality and its components: time for a change? Am J Epidemiol 2002;156:4937.
  • 8
    Barros FC, Bhutta ZA, Batra M, Hansen TN, Victora CG, Rubens CE. Global report on preterm birth and stillbirth (3 of 7): evidence for effectiveness of interventions. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2010;10 (Suppl 1):S3.
  • 9
    Gravett MG, Rubens CE, Nunes TM. Global report on preterm birth and stillbirth (2 of 7): discovery science. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2010;10 (Suppl 1):S2.
  • 10
    WHO | Child mortality 2011 []. Last accessed 27 February 2011.
  • 11
    UNICEF, WHO, World Bank, UN DESA, UNPD. Levels & Trends in Child Mortality: Report 2010. New York, NY: United Nations Children’s Fund, 2010.
  • 12
    WHO | Newborns: reducing mortality. 2009 []. Last accessed 27 February 2011.
  • 13
    Coreil J, editor. Social and Behavioral Foundations of Public Health, 2nd edn. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc, 2010.
  • 14
    El-Bastawissi AY, Sorensen TK, Akafomo CK, Frederick IO, Xiao R, Williams MA. History of fetal loss and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in relation to subsequent risk of preterm delivery. Matern Child Health J 2003;7:538.
  • 15
    Lekea-Karanika V, Tzoumaka-Bakoula C, Golding J. Previous obstetric history and subsequent preterm delivery in Greece. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1990;37:99109.
  • 16
    Carolan M. The graying of the obstetric population: implications for the older mother. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 2003;32:1927.
  • 17
    Reddy UM. Prediction and prevention of recurrent stillbirth. Obstet Gynecol 2007;110:115164.
  • 18
    Sharma PP, Salihu HM, Kirby RS. Stillbirth recurrence in a population of relatively low-risk mothers. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2007;21 (Suppl 1):2430.
  • 19
    Black M, Shetty A, Bhattacharya S. Obstetric outcomes subsequent to intrauterine death in the first pregnancy. BJOG 2008;115:26974.
  • 20
    Kothari CL, Wendt A, Liggins O, Overton J, Sweezy Ldel C. Assessing maternal risk for fetal-infant mortality: a population-based study to prioritize risk reduction in a healthy start community. Matern Child Health J 2011;15:6876.
  • 21
    Herman AA, McCarthy BJ, Bakewell JM, et al. Data linkage methods used in maternally-linked birth and infant death surveillance data sets from the United States (Georgia, Missouri, Utah and Washington State), Israel, Norway, Scotland and Western Australia. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 1997;11 (Suppl 1):522.
  • 22
    Martin J, Curtin S, Saulnier M, Mousavi J. Development of the matched multiple birth file. 1995–1998 Matched Multiple Birth Dataset NCHS CD-ROM Series 21, No. 13a. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, 2003.
  • 23
    Alexander GR, Kotelchuck M. Quantifying the adequacy of prenatal care: a comparison of indices. Public Health Rep 1996;111:40818; discussion 19.
  • 24
    Rubin DB. Inference and missing data. Biometrika 1976;63:58192.
  • 25
    Rubin DB. Multiple imputation after 18+ years. J Am Stat Assoc 1996;91:47389.
  • 26
    Cox DR. Regression models and life tables. J Roy Statist Soc 1972;34:187220.
  • 27
    Willinger M, Ko CW, Reddy UM. Racial disparities in stillbirth risk across gestation in the United States. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2009;201:469.e1e8.
  • 28
    Sharma PP, Salihu HM, Oyelese Y, Ananth CV, Kirby RS. Is race a determinant of stillbirth recurrence? Obstet Gynecol 2006;107:391397.
  • 29
    MacDorman M, Kirmeyer S. The Challenge of Fetal Mortality. NCHS Data Brief, No 16. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, 2009.
  • 30
    MacDorman MF, Kirmeyer S. Fetal and perinatal mortality, United States, 2005. Natl Vital Stat Rep 2009;57:119.
  • 31
    Lawn J, Shibuya K, Stein C. No cry at birth: global estimates of intrapartum stillbirths and intrapartum-related neonatal deaths. Bull World Health Organ 2005;83:40917.
  • 32
    Silver RM, Varner MW, Reddy U, et al. Work-up of stillbirth: a review of the evidence. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2007;196:43344.
  • 33
    Salihu HM, Duan J, Nabukera SK, Mbah AK, Alio AP. Younger maternal age (at initiation of childbearing) and recurrent perinatal mortality. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2011;154:316.
  • 34
    Royston P, Altman DG, Sauerbrei W. Dichotomizing continuous predictors in multiple regression: a bad idea. Stat Med 2006;25:12741.
  • 35
    Streiner DL. Breaking up is hard to do: the heartbreak of dichotomizing continuous data. Can J Psychiatry 2002;47:2626.
  • 36
    Macdorman MF, Mathews TJ. Recent Trends in Infant Mortality in the United States. Hyattsville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, 2008.
  • 37
    Moore T, Parrish H, Black BP. Interconception care for couples after perinatal loss: a comprehensive review of the literature. J Perinat Neonatal Nurs 2011;25:4451.
  • 38
    Johnson K, Posner SF, Biermann J, et al. Recommendations to improve preconception health and health care-United States. A report of the CDC/ATSDR Preconception Care Work Group and the Select Panel on Preconception Care. MMWR Recomm Rep 2006;55:123.
  • 39
    Rosenbach M, O’Neil S, Cook B, Trebino L, Walker DK. Characteristics, access, utilization, satisfaction, and outcomes of healthy start participants in eight sites. Matern Child Health J 2010;14:66679.
  • 40
    Badura M, Johnson K, Hench K, Reyes M. Healthy start lessons learned on interconception care. Womens Health Issues 2008;18:S616.
  • 41
    Gold KJ, Leon I, Chames MC. National survey of obstetrician attitudes about timing the subsequent pregnancy after perinatal death. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2010;202:357 e16.
  • 42
    Williams EK, Hossain MB, Sharma RK, Kumar V, Pandey CM, Baqui AH. Birth interval and risk of stillbirth or neonatal death: findings from rural north India. J Trop Pediatr 2008;54:3217.
  • 43
    Koenig MA, Phillips JF, Campbell OM, D’Souza S. Birth intervals and childhood mortality in rural Bangladesh. Demography 1990;27:25165.
  • 44
    Rutstein SO. Effects of preceding birth intervals on neonatal, infant and under-five years mortality and nutritional status in developing countries: evidence from the demographic and health surveys. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2005;89 (Suppl 1):S724.
  • 45
    Conde-Agudelo A, Rosas-Bermudez A, Kafury-Goeta AC. Birth spacing and risk of adverse perinatal outcomes: a meta-analysis. JAMA 2006;295:180923.
  • 46
    Smith GC, Pell JP, Dobbie R. Interpregnancy interval and risk of preterm birth and neonatal death: retrospective cohort study. BMJ 2003;327:313.