Training and learning robotic surgery, time for a more structured approach: a systematic review
Article first published online: 10 OCT 2011
© 2011 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2011 RCOG
BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Special Issue: Gynaecological oncology
Volume 119, Issue 2, pages 137–149, January 2012
How to Cite
Schreuder, H., Wolswijk, R., Zweemer, R., Schijven, M. and Verheijen, R. (2012), Training and learning robotic surgery, time for a more structured approach: a systematic review. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 119: 137–149. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2011.03139.x
- Issue published online: 13 DEC 2011
- Article first published online: 10 OCT 2011
- Accepted 26 July 2011. Published Online 7 October 2011.
- robotic surgery;
Please cite this paper as: Schreuder H, Wolswijk R, Zweemer R, Schijven M, Verheijen R. Training and learning robotic surgery, time for a more structured approach: a systematic review. BJOG 2012;119:137–149.
Background Robotic assisted laparoscopic surgery is growing rapidly and there is an increasing need for a structured approach to train future robotic surgeons.
Objectives To review the literature on training and learning strategies for robotic assisted laparoscopic surgery.
Search strategy A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and the Journal of Robotic Surgery was performed.
Selection criteria We included articles concerning training, learning, education and teaching of robotic assisted laparoscopic surgery in any specialism.
Data collection and analysis Two authors independently selected articles to be included. We categorised the included articles into: training modalities, learning curve, training future surgeons, curriculum design and implementation.
Main results We included 114 full text articles. Training modalities such as didactic training, skills training (dry lab, virtual reality, animal or cadaver models), case observation, bedside assisting, proctoring and the mentoring console can be used for training in robotic assisted laparoscopic surgery. Several training programmes in general and specific programmes designed for residents, fellows and surgeons are described in the literature. We provide guidelines for development of a structured training programme.
Authors’ conclusions Robotic surgical training consists of system training and procedural training. System training should be formally organised and should be competence based, instead of time based. Virtual reality training will play an import role in the near future. Procedural training should be organised in a stepwise approach with objective assessment of each step. This review aims to facilitate and improve the implementation of structured robotic surgical training programmes.