Figure S1. Flowchart of literature search.

Figure S2. Virtual reality training, the Robotic Surgical Simulator™ (image provided by Simulated Surgical Systems, Buffalo, NY, USA).44

Figure S3. Virtual reality training, the dVT-Trainer™ (image provided by Mimic Technologies, Seattle, WS, USA).46

Figure S4. Da Vinci Surgical System™ with separate mentoring console (image provided by Intuitive Surgical Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, USA).85

Table S1. Types of simulation.

Table S2. Levels of validity.

Table S3. Guidelines for robotic training curriculum.

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