• 1
    Freeman E, Sherif K. Prevalence of hot flushes and night sweats around the world: a systematic review. Climacteric 2007;10:197214.
  • 2
    Andrikoula M, Prevelic G. Menopausal hot flushes revisited. Climacteric 2009;12:315.
  • 3
    Soules MR, Sherman S, Parrott E, Rebar R, Santoro N, Utian W, et al. Executive summary: Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop (STRAW). Climacteric 2001;4:26772.
  • 4
    Brambilla DJ, McKinlay SM. A prospective study of factors affecting age at menopause. J Clin Epidemiol 1989;42:10319.
  • 5
    Luoto R, Kaprio J, Uutela A. Age at natural menopause and sociodemographic status in Finland. Am J Epidemiol 1994;139:6476.
  • 6
    Baig LA, Karim SA. Age at menopause, and knowledge of and attitudes to menopause, of women in Karachi, Pakistan. J Brit Menopause Soc 2006;12:714.
  • 7
    Adhi M, Hasan R, Shoaib S, Shoaib T. Age and symptomatology of menopause in Karachi, Pakistan. Pak J Physiol 2007;3:414.
  • 8
    Col NF, Guthrie JR, Politi M, Dennerstein L. Duration of vasomotor symptoms in middle aged women: a longitudinal study. Menopause 2009;16:4537.
  • 9
    Kronenberg F. Hot flashes: epidemiology and physiology. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1990;592:12333.
  • 10
    Mold JW, Lawler F. The prognostic implications of night sweats in two cohorts of older patients. J Am Board Fam Med 2010;23:97103.
  • 11
    Avis NE, Colvin A, Bromberger JT, Hess R, Matthews KA, Ory M, et al. Change in health-related quality of life over the menopausal transition in a multiethnic cohort of middle-aged women: Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation. Menopause 2009;16:8609.
  • 12
    Rossouw JE, Anderson GL, Prentice RL, LaCroix AZ, Kooperberg C, Stefanick ML, et al. Risks and benefits of oestrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results from the Women’s health initiative randomised controlled trial. JAMA 2002;288:321e33.
  • 13
    Manson JE, Hsia J, Johnson KC, Rossouw JE, Assaf AR, Lasser NL, et al. Estrogen plus progestin and the risk of coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med 2003;349:523e34.
  • 14
    Menon U, Burnell M, Sharma A, et al. Decline in women using hormone replacement therapy at recruitment to a large screening trial in the UK. Menopause 2007;14:4627.
  • 15
    Grady D, Sawaya GF. Discontinuation of postmenopausal hormone therapy. Am J Med 2005;118:163S5S.
  • 16
    Hunter MS, Rendall R. Biopsychosociocultural perspectives on menopause. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2007;21:26174.
  • 17
    Carpenter JS. The Hot Flash Related Daily Interference Scale: a tool for assessing the impact of hot flashes on quality of life following breast cancer. J Pain Symptom Manage 2001;22:97989.
  • 18
    Hunter MS, Liao KLM. A psychological analysis of menopausal hot flushes. Brit J Clin Psychol 1995;34:58999.
  • 19
    Carpenter JS. Modelling the hot flash experience in breast cancer survivors. Menopause 2008;15:46975.
  • 20
    Mann E, Hunter MS. Concordance between self-reported and sternal skin conductance measures of hot flushes in symptomatic menopausal women: a systematic review. Menopause 2011;18:70222.
  • 21
    Hunter MS, Mann E. A cognitive model of menopausal hot flushes. J Psychosom Res 2010;69:491501.
  • 22
    Rand KL, Otte JL, Flockhart D, Hayes D, Storniolo AM, Stearns V, et al. Modeling hot flushes and quality of life in breast cancer survivors. Climacteric 2011;14:17180.
  • 23
    Snyder CF, Aaronson NK. Use of patient-reported outcomes in clinical practice. Lancet 2009;374:36970.
  • 24
    Darzi A. High quality care for all: NHS next stage review final report. London: Department of Health, The Stationary Office; 2008.
  • 25
    Miller H, Li R. Measuring hot flashes: summary of a National Institutes of Health Workshop. Mayo Clin Proc 2004;79:77781.
  • 26
    Whiteman M, Staropoli C, Benedict J, Borgeest C, Flaws J. Risk factors for hot flashes in midlife women. J Women’s Health 2003;12:45972.
  • 27
    Guthrie J, Dennerstein L, Taffe J, Lehert P, Burger H. Hot flushes during the menopause transition: a longitudinal study in Australian-born women. Menopause 2005;12:4607.
  • 28
    Thurston R, Sowers M, Sternfeld B, Gold E, Bromberger J, Chang Y, et al. Gains in body fat and vasomotor symptom reporting over the menopausal transition: the study of women’s health across the nation. Am J Epidemiol 2009;170:76674.
  • 29
    Pérez J, Garcia F, Palacios S, Pérez M. Epidemiology of risk factors and symptoms associated with menopause in Spanish women. Maturitas 2009;62:306.
  • 30
    Li C, Samsioe G, Borgfeldt C, Lidfeldt J, Agardh C, Nerbrand C. Menopause-related symptoms: what are the background factors? A prospective population-based cohort study of Swedish women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003;189:164653.
  • 31
    Chedraui P, Aguirre W, Calle A, Hidalgo L, León-León P, Miranda O, et al. Risk factors related to the presence and severity of hot flushes in mid-aged Ecuadorian women. Maturitas 2007;65:37882.
  • 32
    Thurston R, Bromberger J, Chang Y, Goldbacher E, Brown C, Cyranowski JM, et al. Childhood abuse or neglect is associated with increased vasomotor symptom reporting among midlife women. Menopause 2008;15:1622.
  • 33
    Schwingl P, Hulka B, Harlow S. Risk factors for menopausal hot flashes. Obstet Gynecol 1994;84:2934.
  • 34
    Freeman EW, Sammel MD, Lin H, Gracia CR, Kapoor S, Ferdousi T, et al. The role of anxiety and hormonal changes in menopausal hot flashes. Menopause 2005;12:25866.
  • 35
    Thurston RC, Bromberger JT, Joffe H, Avis NE, Hess R, Crandall CJ, et al. Beyond frequency: who is bothered by vasomotor symptoms? Menopause 2008;15:8417.
  • 36
    Hunter MS, Haqqani JR. An investigation of the discordance between subjective perception and physiological measures of menopausal hot flushes. Climacteric 2011;13:14651.
  • 37
    Swartzman LC, Edelberg R, Kemmann E. Impact of stress on objectively recorded menopausal hot flushes and on flush report bias. Health Psychol 1990;9:52945.
  • 38
    Woods NF, Mitchell ES, Landis C. Editorial: anxiety, hormonal changes and vasomotor symptoms during the menopause transition. Menopause 2005;12:2425.
  • 39
    Lermer MA, Morra A, Moineddin R, Manson J, Blake J, Tierney MC, et al. Somatic and affective anxiety symptoms and menopausal hot flashes. Menopause 2011;2:12932.
  • 40
    Ziv-Gal A, Flaws JA. Factors that may influence the experience of hot flushes by healthy middle-aged women. J Women’s Health 2010;19:190514.
  • 41
    Menon U, Gentry-Maharaj A, Ryan A, Sharma A, Burnell M, Hallet R, et al. Recruitment to multicentre trials—lessons from UKCTOCS: descriptive study. BMJ 2008;337:2079.
  • 42
    Niggebruge A, Haynes R, Jones A, Lovett A, Harvey I. The index of multiple deprivation 2000 access domain: a useful indicator for public health. Soc Sci Med 2005;60:274353.
  • 43
    Hunter MS. The Women’s health questionnaire: a measure of mid-aged women’s perceptions of their emotional and physical health. Psychol Health 1992;7:4554.
  • 44
    Hunter MS. The Women’s Health Questionnaire (WHQ): Frequently Asked Questions. Health Qual Life Outcomes 2003;1:41.
  • 45
    Hunter MS. The South East England longitudinal study of the menopause. Maturitas 1992;14:11726.
  • 46
    McKinlay SM, Brambilla DJ, Posner J. The normal menopause transition. Maturitas 1992;14:10316.
  • 47
    Warren MP. Menopausal hot flashes: how long do they really last? Menopause 2009;16:3.
  • 48
    Cooper R, Lucke J, Lawlor DA, Mishra G, Chang J-H, Ebrahim Set al. Socioeconomic position and hysterectomy: a cross cohort comparison of women in Australia and Great Britain. J Epidemiol Community Health 2008;62:105763.
  • 49
    Fitzgerald DM, Berecki-Gisolf J, Hockey RL, Dobson AJ. Hysterectomy and weight gain. Menopause 2009;16:27985.
  • 50
    Redburn JC, Murphy MFG. Hysterectomy prevalence and adjusted cervical and uterine cancer rates in England and Wales. BJOG 2001;108:38895.
  • 51
    Freedman R, Krell W. Reduced thermoregulatory null zone in postmenopausal women with hot flashes. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999;181:6670.
  • 52
    Thurston RC, Sowers MR, Sutton-Tyrrell K, Everson-Rose SA, Lewis TT, Edmundowicz D, et al. Abdominal adiposity and hot flashes among midlife women. Menopause 2008;15:42934.
  • 53
    Rendall MJ, Simmons LM, Hunter MS. The Hot Flush beliefs Scale: a tool for assessing thoughts and beliefs associated with experience of menopausal hot flushes and night sweats. Maturitas 2008;60:15869.
  • 54
    Burnell M, Gentry-Maharaj A, Ryan A, Apostolidou S, Habib M, Kalsi J, et al. Impact on mortality and cancer incidence rates of using random invitation from population registers for recruitment to trials. Trials 2011;1:12.
  • 55
    Freeman EW, Sammel MD, Lin H, Liu Z, Gracia CR. Duration of menopausal hot flushes and associated risk factors. Obstet Gynecol 2011;117:1095104.
  • 56
    Stommel M, Schoenborn CA. Accuracy and usefulness of BMI measures based on self-reported weight and height: findings from the NHANES & NHIS 2001-2006. BMC Public Health 2009;9:421.
  • 57
    Hughes LA, Schouten LJ, Goldbohm RA, van den Brandt PA, Weijenberg MP. Self-reported clothing size as a proxy measure for body size. Epidemiology 2009;20:6736.
  • 58
    Craig BM, Adams AK. Accuracy of body mass index categories based on self-reported height and weight among women in the United States. Matern Child Health J 2009;13:48996.
  • 59
    Lethaby AE, Brown J, Marjoribanks J, Kronenberg F, Roberts H, Eden J. Phytoestrogens for vasomotor systems. Cochrane Database of Syst Rev 2007;4:CD001395. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001495.pub3.
  • 60
    Tice JA, Grady D. Alternatives to Estrogen for Treatment of Hot Flashes. JAMA 2006;295:20768.
  • 61
    Nelson HD, Vesco KK, Haney E, Fu R, Nedrow A, Miller J, et al. Nonhormonal Therapies for Menopausal Hot Flashes: systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 2006;295:205771.
  • 62
    Hunter MS, Coventry S, Hamed H, Fentiman I, Grunfeld AE. Evaluation of a cognitive behavioural intervention for women suffering from menopausal symptoms following breast cancer treatment. Psychooncology 2008;18:5603.
  • 63
    Mann E, Smith M, Hellier J, Hunter MS. A randomised controlled trial of a cognitive behavioural intervention for women who have menopausal symptoms following breast cancer treatment (MENOS 1): trial protocol. BMC Cancer 2011;11:44.
  • 64
    Ayers B, Mann E, Hunter MS. A randomised controlled trial of cognitive behaviour therapy for women with problematic menopausal hot flushes: MENOS2 Trial protocol. BMJ Open 2011; doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2010-000047.