• 1
    Brettle, A. Information skills training: a systematic review of the literature. Health Information and Libraries Journal 2003, 20(Suppl. 1), 39.
  • 2
    Garg, A. & Turtle, K. M. Effectiveness of training health professionals in literature search skills using electronic health databases—a critical appraisal. Health Information and Libraries Journal 2003, 20, 3341.
  • 3
    Koufogiannakis, D. & Weibe, N. Effective methods for teaching information literacy skills to undergraduate students: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Evidence-Based Library and Information Practice 2006, 1, 343.
  • 4
    Robson, C. Real World Research, 2nd edn. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2002.
  • 5
    UK Clearing House on Health Outcomes. Issues in outcome measurement. Outcomes Briefing 1993, Introductory Issue, 913.
  • 6
    Gratch-Lindauer, B. Selecting and developing assessment tools. In: Avery, E. (ed.). Assessing Student Learning Outcomes for Information Literacy Instruction in Academic Institutions. Chicago: Association of College and Research Libraries, American Library Association, 2003: 2239.
  • 7
    Avery, F. E. Assessing Student Learning Outcomes for Information Literacy Instruction in Academic Institutions. Chicago: Association of College and Research Libraries, American Library Association, 2003.
  • 8
    Cohen, L., Manion, L. & Morrison, K. Research Methods in Education, 5th edn. London: Routledge Falmer, 2000.
  • 9
    HCPRDU. HCPRDU Tools: Critical Appraisal Tools. Salford, UK: Health Care Practice R&D Unit, University of Salford, 2003. Available from: (accessed 16 April 2007).
  • 10
    Koufogiannakis, D., Booth, A. & Brettle, A. ReLIANT: Readers's guide to the Literature on Interventions Addressing the Need for education and Training. Library and Information Research 2006, 30, 4451.
  • 11
    Brettle, A. Information skills training in health libraries: are we any nearer the evidence? Presentation at the 4th International Evidence-Based Library and Information Practice Conference, Transforming the Profession, Chapel Hill, Durham, North Carolina, 6–11 May 2007. 2007. Available from: (accessed 3 October 2007).
  • 12
    Dyer, H. & Bouchet, M. L. A Comparison between the Perceived Value of Information Retrieved Via End User Searching of CD-ROMs and Mediated Online Searching. London: British Library, 1995.
  • 13
    King, N. S. End-user errors: a content analysis of PaperChase transaction logs. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association 1993, 81, 43941.
  • 14
    Mckibbon, K. A., Haynes, R. B., Johnston, M. E. & Walker, C. J. A study to enhance clinical end-user medline search skills: design and baseline findings. American Medical Informatics Association 1992, 737.
  • 15
    Ramos, K. D., Schafer, S. & Tracz, S. M. Validation of the Fresno test of competence in evidence-based medicine. British Medical Journal 2003, 326, 31921.
  • 16
    Bradley, P. & Herrin, J. Development and validation of an instrument to measure knowledge of evidence-based practice and searching skills. Medical Education Online 2004, 9. Available from: (accessed 3 October 2007).
  • 17
    Bradley. P., Oterholt, C., Herrin, J., Nordheim, L. & Bjorndal, A. Comparison of directed and self-directed learning in evidence-based medicine: a randomized controlled trial. Medical Education 2005, 39, 102735.
  • 18
    Gardois, P., Grillo, G., Lingua, C., Jourdan, A., Piga, A. & Fronteddu, S. Assessing the efficacy of EBM teaching in a clinical setting. Hypothesis 2005, 19, 1.
  • 19
    Johnston, J. M., Leung, G. M., Fielding, R., Tin, K. Y. K. & Ho, L. The development and validation of a knowledge, attitude and behaviour questionnaire to assess undergraduate evidence-based practice teaching and learning. Medical Education 2003, 37, 9921000.
  • 20
    Streiner, D. & Norman, G. Health Measurement Scales: A Practical Guide to Their Development and Use, 3rd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.
  • 21
    Ross, R. & Verdieck, A. Introducing an evidence-based medicine curriculum into a family practice residency—is it effective? Academic Medicine 2003, 78, 4127.
  • 22
    Berner, E. S., Mcgowan, J. J., Hardin, J. M., Spooner, S. A., Raszka, W. V. Jr & Berkow, R. L. A model for assessing information retrieval and application skills of medical students. Academic Medicine 2002, 77, 54751.
  • 23
    Hersh, W. & Hickam, D. H. Use of a multi-application computer workstation in a clinical setting. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association 1994, 82, 3829.
  • 24
    Rosenberg, W. M., Deeks, J., Lusher, A., Snowball, R., Dooley, G. & Sackett, D. Improving searching skills and evidence retrieval. Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London 1998, 32, 55763.
  • 25
    Shorten, A., Wallace, M. C. & Crookes, P. A. Developing information literacy: a key to evidence-based nursing. International Nursing Review 2001, 48, 8692.
  • 26
    Barnett, S. H., Kaiser, S., Morgan, L. K., Sullivant, J., Siu, A. & Rose, D. An integrated program for evidence-based medicine in medical school. Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine 2000, 67, 1638.
  • 27
    Blumenthal, J. L., Mays, B. E., Weinfeld, J. M., Banks, M. A. & Shaffer, J. Defining and assessing medical informatics competencies. Medical Reference Services Quarterly 2005, 24, 95102.
  • 28
    Dorsch, J. L. BIOETHICSLINE use by medical students: curriculum-integrated instruction and collection development implications. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association 1997, 85, 14753.
  • 29
    Francis, B. W. & Fisher, C. C. Multilevel library instruction for emerging nursing roles. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association 1995, 83, 4928.
  • 30
    Bradley, D. R., Rana, G. K., Martin, P. W. & Schumacher, R. E. Real-time, evidence-based medicine instruction: a randomized controlled trial in a neonatal intensive care unit. Journal of the Medical Library Association 2002, 90, 194201.
  • 31
    Davidson, R. A., Duerson, M., Romrell, L., Pauly, R. & Watson, R. T. Evaluating evidence-based medicine skills during a performance-based examination. Academic Medicine 2004, 79, 2725.
  • 32
    Pearce-Smith, N. Randomised controlled trial comparing the effect of e-learning with a taught workshop on the knowledge and skills of health professionals. INFORM 20052006, 16, 178.
  • 33
    Rosenfeld, P., Salazar-Riera, N. & Vieira, D. Piloting an information literacy program for staff nurses: lessons learned. CIN: Computers, Informatics, Nursing 2002, 20, 23641.
  • 34
    Verhoeven, A. A., Boerma, E. J. & Meyboom-de Jong, B. Which literature retrieval method is most effective for GPs? Family Practice 2000, 17, 305.
  • 35
    Vogel, E. W., Block, K. R. & Wallingford, K. T. Finding the evidence: teaching medical residents to search medline. Journal of the Medical Library Association 2002, 90, 32730.
  • 36
    Koufogiannakis, D., Buckingham, J., Alibhai, A. & Rayner, D. Impact of librarians in first-year medical and dental student problem-based learning (PBL) groups: a controlled study. Health Information and Libraries Journal 2005, 22, 18995.
  • 37
    Straus, S. E., Green, M. L., Bell, D. S., Badgett, R., Davis, D. & Gerrity, M. Evaluating the teaching of evidence-based medicine: conceptual framework. British Medical Journal 2004, 329, 102932.
  • 38
    Brettle, A. Evaluation Toolkit. National Library for Health, 2004. Available from: (accessed 23 April 2007).