The brain serotonin levels of rats maintained on a 5 % phenylalanine diet rose more slowly (0.18 μ g/g brain/hr) after administration of a monoamine oxidase inhibitor than did serotonin levels of controls (0.41 μ g/g brain/hr). The rate of brain serotonin decline following reserpine or dimethylaminobenzoyl methyl reserpate was the same for both groups as was basal monoamine oxidase activity. Brain uptake of monoamine oxidase inhibitor was also the same for both groups. It was concluded that the decrease in brain serotonin levels in phenylalanine-fed animals was due to decreased serotonin formation rather than enhanced degradation. On the basis of available data it was concluded that both hydroxylase inhibition and inhibited precursor transport were involved.