Abstract— Fractions enriched in neuronal cell bodies and in glial cells were isolated from rabbit cerebral cortex by discontinuous gradient centrifugation. The ratio of total lipid to protein was approx. 50 per cent higher in the glial fraction than in the neuronal fraction. The fatty acid composition for the major phosphoglycerides was with few exceptions, similar for neurons and glia. The ganglioside concentration was very low for both cell types, but was approx. twice as high in the glial cells as in the neurons. The pattern of individual gangliosides was, however, very similar for the glial and neuronal fractions and did not differ from that of unfractionated cerebral cortex, synaptosomes and mitochondria. The latter results are discussed in relation to the estimated amounts of plasma membrane in the neuronal and glial fractions.