The free amino acid content of the hippocampus, obtained at postmortem, has been analysed in cases of Alzheimer's disease and compared with normal cases. There were no significant differences in the levels of 23 amino acids including the transmitter candidates γ-aminobutyric, glutamic or aspartic acids. This finding is interpreted in relation to present knowledge of transmitter pathways in the region of the hippocampus. A tendency for some amino acids to be increased in the Alzheimer group reached statistical significance for arginine. This observation is consistent with increased proteolytic or peptidase activity in Alzheimer's disease.