Abstract: The benzodiazepine receptor from rat brain was solubilised and purified 5200-fold by affinity chromatography. The affinity column contained an immobilized benzodiazepine (delorazepam) and biospecific elution with 6 mm-chlorazepate was achieved. The purified receptor is apparently homogeneous in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The native protein had a molecular weight of 240,000, and the subunit one of 60,000. The dissociation constant (KD) is 8 nm for [3H]diazepam. A correlation exists between the value of affinity obtained for benzodiazepine derivatives and their known pharmacological effectiveness.