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Neurochemical Changes in Murine Trisomy 16: Delay in Cholinergic and Catecholaminergic Systems

Authors

  • P. T. Ozand,

    Corresponding author
    1. W.P.C.C. Down's Syndrome Center, Department of Pediatrics, and Department of Anatomy, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.
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  • R. L. Hawkins,

    1. W.P.C.C. Down's Syndrome Center, Department of Pediatrics, and Department of Anatomy, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.
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  • R. M. Collins Jr.,

    1. W.P.C.C. Down's Syndrome Center, Department of Pediatrics, and Department of Anatomy, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.
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  • W. D. Reed,

    1. W.P.C.C. Down's Syndrome Center, Department of Pediatrics, and Department of Anatomy, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.
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  • P. J. Baab,

    1. W.P.C.C. Down's Syndrome Center, Department of Pediatrics, and Department of Anatomy, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.
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  • M. L. Oster-Granite

    1. W.P.C.C. Down's Syndrome Center, Department of Pediatrics, and Department of Anatomy, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.
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Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr. P. T. Ozand, W.P.C.C. Down's Syndrome Center, Department of Pediatrics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 630 W. Fayette Street, Baltimore, MD 21201, U.S.A.

Abstract

Abstract: Two strains of Mus musculus musculus, C57BL/6J and CD-1, and Mus musculus poschiavinus, the tobacco mouse, were used to study the effects of increased gene dosage of mouse chromosome 16 (MMU 16). A developmental delay has been found in the brains of murine trisomy 16 (Ts 16) fetuses. Both the brain weight (in all three strains) and DNA content (in CD-1) were reduced, while protein content was unchanged in Ts16 compared to normal littermates. The daily increments of weight and protein (except in M. m. poschiavinus) were significantly greater in Ts16. The activities of choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase and nuscarinic receptor binding were reduced. Their daily increments were also reduced to less than 56% that of littermates in Ts16 brains. The rate limiting enzymes of Catecholaminergic neurons, tyrosine hydroxylase and do-pamine β-hydroxylase, and the concentration of catecholamines in the brains of Ts16 animals were lower. The activities of three other Catecholaminergic enzymes, DOPA decarboxylase, catechol O-methyltransferase, and monoamine oxidase, were generally elevated in Ts16 brain, as were their daily increments. These observations indicate a significant developmental alteration in the maturation of the trisomic brain and suggest future avenues for defining the effect of increased gene dosage of MMU 16 in the CNS.

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