Abstract: Brain metabolism and intracellular pH were studied during and after episodes of ischaemia and hypoxia-ischaemia in lambs anaesthetised with sodium pentobarbitone. 31P and 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy methods were used to monitor brain pHi and brain concentrations of Pi, phosphocreatine (PCr), β-nucleoside triphosphate (βNTP), and lactate. Simultaneous measurements were made of cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygen and glucose consumption. Cerebral ischaemia sufficient to reduce oxygen delivery to 75% of control values was associated with a fall in brain pHi and increase in brain Pi. Progressively severe hypoxia-ischaemia was associated with a progressive fall in brain pHi, PCr, and βNTP and increase in brain pi In two animals the increase in brain lactate during hypoxia-ischaemia measured by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) could be quantitatively accounted for by the increased net uptake of glucose by the brain in relation to oxygen, but was insufficient to account for the concomitant aci-dosis according to previous estimates of brain buffering capacity. In four animals brain pHi, PCr, pi, and βNTP had returned to normal 1 h after the hypoxic-ischaemic episode. In one animal brain pHi had reverted to normal at a time when 1H NMR indicated persistent elevation of brain lactate.