Abstract: Hypoxia induces alterations of central mono-aminergic transmission and of behavior. We studied the effect of hypoxia on adult and newborn rats to obtain more information about long-lasting changes of dopamine (DA) transmission caused by neonatal hypoxia. One single exposure of adult rats to hypoxia leads to short-term alterations of DA uptake: decreased affinity of the uptake carrier to DA (Km, 269.5% versus control) and a sharp increase of Vmax up to 301.4% resulting in an increase of total uptake of DA into the striatum synaptosomes. The K+-evoked DA release decreased to 69.5%. After 1 week of recovery all parameters are normalized. Chronic postnatal hypoxia (postnatal day 2–11) caused long-lasting changes of DA release and uptake opposite to those observed in adult rats. Three months after hypoxia, the K+-stimulated DA release was enhanced (132% of control), and the uptake was reduced due to decreased affinity of the uptake carrier system for the substrate (Km, 187% of control value). In conclusion, the alterations observed after chronic postnatal hypoxia reflect special adaptive processes that are related to the high plasticity of the immature neonatal brain and contribute to an increased DA function in the nigrostriatal system.