Abstract: The modification of dopamine release and accumulation induced by γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) was studied using both striatal slices and in vivo microdialysis of caudate-putamen. GHB inhibited dopamine release for ∼5–10 min in vitro, and this was associated with an accumulation of dopamine in the tissue. Subsequently, there was an increase in dopamine release. In the microdialysis experiments, low doses of GHB inhibited dopamine release, whereas higher doses strongly increased release; the initial decrease seen in slices could not be detected in vivo. Thus, GHB had a biphasic effect on the release of dopamine: An initial decrease in the release of transmitter was followed by an increase. A time-dependent biphasic effect was observed when GHB was added to brain slices, and a dose-dependent biphasic effect was seen in dialysate after systemic administration of GHB. Naloxone blocked GHB-induced dopamine accumulation and release both in vitro and in vivo. GHB also increased the release of opioid-like substances in the striatum. A specific antagonist of GHB receptors completely blocked both the dopamine response and the release of opioid-like substances. These data suggest that GHB increases dopamine release via specific receptors that may modulate the activity of opioid interneurons.