Phosphorylation of Rat Tyrosine Hydroxylase and Its Model Peptides In Vitro by Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase

Authors

  • Robert Roskoski Jr.,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Medical Center, New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A.
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  • Patricia Ritchie

    1. Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Medical Center, New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A.
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Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr. R. Roskoski, Jr. at Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Medical Center, New Orleans, LA 70119, U.S.A.

Abstract

Abstract: The enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase catalyzes the first step in the biosynthesis of dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. Tyrosine hydroxylase is a substrate for cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase as well as other protein kinases. We determined the Km and Vmax of rat pheochromo-cytoma tyrosine hydroxylase for cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and obtained values of 136 μM and 7.1 μmol/min/mg of catalytic subunit, respectively. These values were not appreciably affected by the substrates for tyrosine hydroxylase (tyrosine and tetrahydrobiopterin) or by feedback inhibitors (dopamine and norepinephrine). The high Km of tyrosine hydroxylase correlates with the high content of tyrosine hydroxylase in catecholaminergic cells. We also determined the kinetic constants for peptides modeled after actual or potential tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylation sites. We found that the best substrates for cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase were those peptides corresponding to serine 40. Tyrosine hydroxylase (36–46), for example, exhibited a Km of 108 μM and a Vmax of 6.93 μmol/min/mg of catalytic subunit. The next best substrate was the peptide corresponding to serine 153. The peptide containing the sequence conforming to serine 19 was a very poor substrate, and that conforming to serine 172 was not phosphorylated to any significant extent. The primary structure of the actual or potential phosphorylation sites is sufficient to explain the substrate behavior of the native enzyme.

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