Abstract: Extracellular levels of acetylcholine (ACh) were measured in the nucleus accumbens (NAC), striatum (STR), and hippocampus (HIPP) using microdialysis in 30-min intervals before, during, and after free-feeding in 20-h food-deprived rats. The effects on ACh in the NAC and STR were also observed in response to water intake in 20-h water-deprived animals. Neostigmine was used in the perfusate to improve ACh recovery. Basal ACh was sensitive to tetrodotoxin and low calcium, and therefore largely neuronal in origin. Feeding caused a 38% increase in extracellular ACh in the NAC and no change in the STR or HIPP. Dopamine was also increased in the NAC (48%) and to a lesser extent in the STR (21%) following feeding. Drinking caused 18–20% increases in ACh release in both the NAC and STR. In a separate experiment, ACh release in the NAC was monitored in 10-min intervals during free-feeding; ACh increased in the interval immediately following maximal food intake. These results suggest a site-specific increase in ACh release following feeding that cannot be solely attributed to the activation associated with this behavior.