Abstract: Astrocyte cultures from rat brain were analyzed for their ability to synthesize and secrete secretogranin II (chromogranin C). Northern blot analysis of polyA-selected RNA established the presence of secretogranin II mRNA in these cells. By radioimmunoassay, 11.6 fmol/106 astrocytes of secretogranin II was found in these cells. About twice the amount was released into the medium within 3 days. Secretogranin II within the astrocytes was practically unprocessed, as shown by HPLC. These results establish for the first time that astrocytes in vitro synthesize and sec rete a protein of the acidic chromogranin family.