SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Abbott N. J. (2000) Inflammatory mediators and modulation of blood-brain barrier permeability. Cell Mol. Neurobiol. 20, 131147.
  • Adlard P. A., West A. K. and Vickers J. C. (1998) Increased density of metallothionein I/II-immunopositive cortical glial cells in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol. Dis. 5, 349356.
  • Albrecht P. J., Dahl J. P., Stoltzfus O. K., Levenson R. and Levison S. W. (2002) Ciliary neurotrophic factor activates spinal cord astrocytes, stimulating their production and release of FGF-2, to increase motor neuron survival. Exp. Neurol. 173, 4662.
  • Albrecht P. J., Murtie J. C., Ness J. K., Redwine J. M., Enterline J. R., Armstrong R. C. and Levison S. W. (2003) Astrocytes produce CNTF during the remyelination phase of viral-induced spinal cord demyelination to stimulate FGF-2 production. Neurobiol. Dis. 13, 89101.
  • Aronica E., Gorter J. A., Ijlst-Keizers H., Rozemuller A. J., Yankaya B., Leenstra S. and Troost D. (2003) Expression and functional role of mGlur3 and mGlur5 in human astrocytes and glioma cells: Opposite regulation of glutamate transporter proteins. Eur. J. Neurosci. 17, 21062118.
  • Auron P. E. (1998) The interleukin 1 receptor: ligand interactions and signal transduction. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 9, 221237.
  • Balazs R., Miller S., Romano C., De Vries A., Chun Y. and Cotman C. W. (1997) Metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR5 in astrocytes: Pharmacological properties and agonist regulation. J. Neurochem. 69, 151163.
  • Baldwin S. A., Fugaccia I., Brown D. R., Brown L. V. and Scheff S. W. (1996) Blood–brain barrier breach following cortical contusion in the rat. J. Neurosurg 85, 476481.
  • Berry M., Butt A. and Logan A. (1999) Cellular responses to penetrating CNS injury, in CNS Injuries: Cellular Responses and Pharmacological Strategies (M.Berry and A.Logan, eds), pp. 1–18.CRC Press, Boca Raton.
  • Bignami A. and Dahl D. (1995) Gliosis, in Neuroglia. (H.Kettenmann and B.Ransom, eds), pp. 843–858.Oxford University Press, Inc., New York.
  • Blondel O., Collin C., McCarran W. J., Zhu S., Zamostiano R., Gozes I., Brenneman D. E. and McKay R. D. (2000) A glia-derived signal regulating neuronal differentiation. J. Neurosci. 20, 80128020.
  • Braquet P., Spinnewyn B., Demerle C., Hosford D., Marcheselli V., Rossowska M. and Bazan N. G. (1989) The role of platelet-activating factor in cerebral ischemia and related disorders. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 559, 296312.
  • Brenneman D. E. and Gozes I. (1996) A femtomolar-acting neuroprotective peptide. J. Clin. Invest. 97, 22992307.
  • Brenneman D. E., Neale E. A., Foster G. A., D'Autremont S. W. and Westbrook G. L. (1987) Nonneuronal cells mediate neurotrophic action of vasoactive intestinal peptide. J. Cell Biol. 104, 16031610.
  • Brenneman D. E., Nicol T., Warren D. and Bowers L. M. (1990) Vasoactive intestinal peptide: a neurotrophic releasing agent and an astroglial mitogen. J. Neurosci. Res. 25, 386394.
  • Brucklacher R. M., Vannucci R. C. and Vannucci S. J. (2002) Hypoxic preconditioning increases brain glycogen and delays energy depletion from hypoxia-ischemia in the immature rat. Dev. Neurosci. 24, 411417.
  • Bruno V., Battaglia G., Copani A., Casabona G., Storto M., Di Giorgi Gerevini V., Ngomba R. and Nicoletti F. (1998) Metabotropic glutamate receptors and neurodegeneration. Prog. Brain Res. 116, 209221.
  • Bush T. G., Puvanachandra N., Horner C. H., Polito A., Ostenfeld T., Svendsen C. N., Mucke L., Johnson M. H. and Sofroniew M. V. (1999) Leukocyte infiltration, neuronal degeneration, and neurite outgrowth after ablation of scar-forming, reactive astrocytes in adult transgenic mice. Neuron 23, 297308.
  • Chang R. C., Chen W., Hudson P., Wilson B., Han D. S. and Hong J. S. (2001) Neurons reduce glial responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and prevent injury of microglial cells from over-activation by LPS. J. Neurochem. 76, 10421049.
  • Ciccarelli R., Sureda F. X., Casabona G., Di Iorio P., Caruso A., Spinella F., Condorelli D. F., Nicoletti F. and Caciagli F. (1997) Opposite influence of the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes mGlu3 and -5 on astrocyte proliferation in culture. Glia 21, 390398.
  • Ciccarelli R., Di Iorio P., Bruno V., Battaglia G., D'Alimonte I., D'Onofrio M., Nicoletti F. and Caciagli F. (1999) Activation of α(1) adenosine or mGlu3 metabotropic glutamate receptors enhances the release of nerve growth factor and s-100beta protein from cultured astrocytes. Glia 27, 275281.
  • D'Souza S. D., Alinauskas K. A. and Antel J. P. (1996) Ciliary neurotrophic factor selectively protects human oligodendrocytes from tumor necrosis factor-mediated injury. J. Neurosci. Res. 43, 289298.
  • Dallner C., Woods A. G., Deller T., Kirsch M. and Hofmann H. D. (2002) CNTF and CNTF receptor alpha are constitutively expressed by astrocytes in the mouse brain. Glia 37, 374378.
  • Dayton E. T. and Major E. O. (1996) Recombinant human interleukin 1-beta induces production of prostaglandins in primary human fetal astrocytes and immortalized human fetal astrocyte cultures. J. Neuroimmunol. 71, 1118.
  • Dreyfus C. F., Dai X., Lercher L. D., Racey B. R., Friedman W. J. and Black I. B. (1999) Expression of neurotrophins in the adult spinal cord in vivo. J. Neurosci. Res. 56, 17.
  • Dringen R. and Hamprecht B. (1992) Glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 regulate the glycogen content of astroglia-rich primary cultures. J. Neurochem. 58, 511517.
  • Eng L. F., Yu, A. C. and Lee Y. L. (1992) Astrocytic response to injury. Prog. Brain Res. 94, 353365.
  • Eng D. L., Lee Y. L. and Lal P. G. (1997) Expression of glutamate uptake transporters after dibutyryl cyclic amp differentiation and traumatic injury in cultured astrocytes. Brain Res. 778, 215221.
  • Faden A. I., Demediuk P., Panter S. S. and Vink R. (1989) The role of excitatory amino acids and NMDA receptors in traumatic brain injury. Science 244, 798800.
  • Fok-Seang J., DiProspero N. A., Meiners S., Muir E. and Fawcett J. W. (1998) Cytokine-induced changes in the ability of astrocytes to support migration of oligodendrocyte precursors and axon growth. Eur. J. Neurosci. 10, 24002415.
  • Friedman W. J., Larkfors L., Ayer-LeLievre C., Ebendal T., Olson L. and Persson H. (1990) Regulation of beta-nerve growth factor expression by inflammatory mediators in hippocampal cultures. J. Neurosci. Res. 27, 374382.
  • Giulian D., Corpuz M., Richmond B., Wendt E. and Hall E. R. (1996) Activated microglia are the principal glial source of thromboxane in the central nervous system. Neurochem. Int. 29, 6576.
  • Gozes I., Bardea A., Reshef A., Zamostiano R., Zhukovsky S., Rubinraut S., Fridkin M. and Brenneman D. E. (1996) Neuroprotective strategy for Alzheimer disease: intranasal administration of a fatty neuropeptide. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 427432.
  • Gozes I., Bassan M., Zamostiano R., Pinhasov A., Davidson A., Giladi E., Perl O., Glazner G. W. and Brenneman D. E. (1999) A novel signaling molecule for neuropeptide action: activity-dependent neuroprotective protein. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 897, 125135.
  • Guthrie K. M., Woods A. G., Nguyen T. and Gall C. M. (1997) Astroglial ciliary neurotrophic factor mrna expression is increased in fields of axonal sprouting in deafferented hippocampus. J. Comp. Neurol. 386, 137148.
  • Hamer D. H. (1986) Metallothionein. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 55, 913951.
  • Hayashi Y., Nomura M., Yamagishi S., Harada S., Yamashita J. and Yamamoto H. (1997) Induction of various blood–brain barrier properties in non-neural endothelial cells by close apposition to co-cultured astrocytes. Glia 19, 1326.
  • Herx L. M. and Yong V. W. (2001) Interleukin-1 beta is required for the early evolution of reactive astrogliosis following CNS lesion. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 60, 961971.
  • Herx L. M., Rivest S. and Yong V. W. (2000) Central nervous system-initiated inflammation and neurotrophism in trauma: IL-1 beta is required for the production of ciliary neurotrophic factor. J. Immunol. 165, 22322239.
  • Hudgins S. N. and Levison S. W. (1998) Ciliary neurotrophic factor stimulates astroglial hypertrophy in vivo and in vitro. Exp. Neurol. 150, 171182.
  • Janzer R. C. and Raff M. C. (1987) Astrocytes induce blood–brain barrier properties in endothelial cells. Nature 325, 253257.
  • Jordan C. A., Friedrich V. L. Jr, Godfraind C., Cardellechio C. B., Holmes K. V. and Dubois-Dalcq M. (1989) Expression of viral and myelin gene transcripts in a murine CNS demyelinating disease caused by a coronavirus. Glia 2, 318329.
  • Kazazoglou T., Fleischer-Lambropoulos E., Geladopoulos T., Kentroti S., Stefanis C. and Vernadakis A. (1996) Differential responsiveness of late passage C-6 glial cells and advanced passages of astrocytes derived from aged mouse cerebral hemispheres to cytokines and growth factors: glutamine synthetase activity. Neurochem. Res. 21, 609614.
  • Krum J. M. and Rosenstein J. M. (1998) VEGF mRNA and its receptor FLT-1 are expressed in reactive astrocytes following neural grafting and tumor cell implantation in the adult CNS. Exp. Neurol. 154, 5765.
  • Krum J. M., Phillips T. M. and Rosenstein J. M. (2002) Changes in astroglial GLT-1 expression after neural transplantation or stab wounds. Exp. Neurol. 174, 137149.
  • Kuhlow C. J., Krady J. K., Basu A. and Levison S. W. (2003) Astrocytic ceruloplasmin expression, which is induced by IL-1beta and by traumatic brain injury, increases in the absence of the IL-1 type 1 receptor. Glia 44, 7684.
  • Kuhn H. G., Winkler J., Kempermann G., Thal L. J. and Gage F. H. (1997) Epidermal growth factor and fibroblast growth factor-2 have different effects on neural progenitors in the adult rat brain. J. Neurosci. 17, 58205829.
  • Laywell E. D., Dorries U., Bartsch U., Faissner A., Schachner M. and Steindler D. A. (1992) Enhanced expression of the developmentally regulated extracellular matrix molecule tenascin following adult brain injury. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 89, 26342638.
  • Levison S. W., Ducceschi M. H., Young G. M. and Wood T. L. (1996) Acute exposure to CNTF in vivo induces multiple components of reactive gliosis. Exp. Neurol. 141, 256268.
  • Loret C., Laeng P., Sensenbrenner M. and Labourdette G. (1989) Acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors similarly regulate the rate of biosynthesis of rat astroblast proteins. FEBS Lett. 257, 324328.
  • Malipiero U. V., Frei K. and Fontana A. (1990) Production of hemopoietic colony-stimulating factors by astrocytes. J. Immunol. 144, 38163821.
  • Marz P., Heese K., Dimitriades-Schmutz B., Rose-John S. and Otten U. (1999) Role of interleukin-6 and soluble IL-6 receptor in region-specific induction of astrocytic differentiation and neurotrophin expression. Glia 26, 191200.
  • Mason J. L., Suzuki K., Chaplin D. D. and Matsushima G. K. (2001) Interleukin-1beta promotes repair of the CNS. J. Neurosci. 21, 70467052.
  • McKeon R. J., Schreiber R. C., Rudge J. S. and Silver J. (1991) Reduction of neurite outgrowth in a model of glial scarring following CNS injury is correlated with the expression of inhibitory molecules on reactive astrocytes. J. Neurosci. 11, 33983411.
  • Messersmith D. J., Murtie J. C., Le T. Q., Frost E. E. and Armstrong R. C. (2000) Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) and FGF receptor expression in an experimental demyelinating disease with extensive remyelination. J. Neurosci. Res. 62, 241256.
  • Miller S., Romano C. and Cotman C. W. (1995) Growth factor upregulation of a phosphoinositide-coupled metabotropic glutamate receptor in cortical astrocytes. J. Neurosci. 15, 61036109.
  • Minoshima T. and Nakanishi S. (1999) Structural organization of the mouse metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 3 gene and its regulation by growth factors in cultured cortical astrocytes. J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 126, 889896.
  • Nakayama T., Momoki-Soga T. and Inoue N. (2003) Astrocyte-derived factors instruct differentiation of embryonic stem cells into neurons. Neurosci. Res. 46, 241249.
  • Neal J. W., Singhrao S. K., Jasani B. and Newman G. R. (1996) Immunocytochemically detectable metallothionein is expressed by astrocytes in the ischaemic human brain. Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol. 22, 243247.
  • Neumann H., Schweigreiter R., Yamashita T., Rosenkranz K., Wekerle H. and Barde Y. A. (2002) Tumor necrosis factor inhibits neurite outgrowth and branching of hippocampal neurons by a Rho-dependent mechanism. J. Neurosci. 22, 854862.
  • Norenberg M. D. (1994) Astrocyte responses to CNS injury. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 53, 213220.
  • Norton W. T., Aquino D. A., Hozumi I., Chiu F. C. and Brosnan C. F. (1992) Quantitative aspects of reactive gliosis: a review. Neurochem. Res. 17, 877885.
  • O'Donnell S., Vannucci S. J., Frederick T., Krady J. K. and Wood T. L. (2002) Role for IGF-1 in microglial proliferation in the adult brain following cerebral ischemia. Glia 38, 8597.
  • Penkowa M., Moos T., Carrasco J., Hadberg H., Molinero A., Bluethmann H. and Hidalgo J. (1999) Strongly compromised inflammatory response to brain injury in interleukin-6-deficient mice. Glia 25, 343357.
  • Penkowa M., Camats J., Giralt M., Molinero A., Hernandez J., Carrasco J., Campbell I. L. and Hidalgo J. (2003) Metallothionein-1 overexpression alters brain inflammation and stimulates brain repair in transgenic mice with astrocyte-targeted interleukin-6 expression. Glia 42, 287306.
  • Raivich G., Bohatschek M., Kloss C. U., Werner A., Jones L. L. and Kreutzberg G. W. (1999) Neuroglial activation repertoire in the injured brain: Graded response, molecular mechanisms and cues to physiological function. Brain Res. Brain Res. Rev. 30, 77105.
  • Redwine J. M., Blinder K. L. and Armstrong R. C. (1997) In situ expression of fibroblast growth factor receptors by oligodendrocyte progenitors and oligodendrocytes in adult mouse central nervous system. J. Neurosci. Res. 50, 229237.
  • Reier P. J. and Houle J. D. (1988) The glial scar: Its bearing on axonal elongation and transplantation approaches to CNS repair. Adv. Neurol. 47, 87138.
  • Ridet J. L., Malhotra S. K., Privat A. and Gage F. H. (1997) Reactive astrocytes: cellular and molecular cues to biological function. Trends Neurosci. 20, 570577.
  • Rudge J. S., Pasnikowski E. M., Holst P. and Lindsay R. M. (1995) Changes in neurotrophic factor expression and receptor activation following exposure of hippocampal neuron/astrocyte cocultures to kainic acid. J. Neurosci. 15, 68566867.
  • Schwartz J. P. and Nishiyama N. (1994) Neurotrophic factor gene expression in astrocytes during development and following injury. Brain Res. Bull. 35, 403407.
  • Shapira Y., Setton D., Artru A. A. and Shohami E. (1993) Blood–brain barrier permeability, cerebral edema, and neurologic function after closed head injury in rats. Anesth. Analg. 77, 141148.
  • Sillevis Smitt P. A., Blaauwgeers H. G., Troost D. and De Jong J. M. (1992) Metallothionein immunoreactivity is increased in the spinal cord of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Neurosci. Lett. 144, 107110.
  • Soares H. D., Hicks R. R., Smith D. and McIntosh T. K. (1995) Inflammatory leukocytic recruitment and diffuse neuronal degeneration are separate pathological processes resulting from traumatic brain injury. J. Neurosci. 15, 82238233.
  • Song H., Stevens C. F. and Gage F. H. (2002) Astroglia induce neurogenesis from adult neural stem cells. Nature 417, 3944.
  • Spranger M., Lindholm D., Bandtlow C., Heumann R., Gnahn H., Naher-Noe M. and Thoenen H. (1990) Regulation of nerve growth factor (ngf) synthesis in the rat central nervous system: comparison between the effects of interleukin-1 and various growth factors in astrocyte cultures and in vivo. Eur. J. Neurosci. 2, 6976.
  • Stein I., Neeman M., Shweiki D., Itin A. and Keshet E. (1995) Stabilization of vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA by hypoxia and hypoglycemia and coregulation with other ischemia-induced genes. Mol. Cell Biol. 15, 53635368.
  • Stockli K. A., Lillien L. E., Naher-Noe M., Breitfeld G., Hughes R. A., Raff M. C., Thoenen H. and Sendtner M. (1991) Regional distribution, developmental changes, and cellular localization of CNTF-mrna and protein in the rat brain. J. Cell Biol. 115, 447459.
  • Stoll G., Jander S. and Schroeter M. (2002) Detrimental and beneficial effects of injury-induced inflammation and cytokine expression in the nervous system. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 513, 87113.
  • Suzuki K., Ikegaya Y., Matsuura S., Kanai Y., Endou H. and Matsuki N. (2001) Transient upregulation of the glial glutamate transporter GLAST in response to fibroblast growth factor, insulin-like growth factor and epidermal growth factor in cultured astrocytes. J. Cell Sci. 114, 37173725.
  • Thompson A. J. and McDonald W. I. (1992) Multiple sclerosis and its pathophysiology, in Diseases of the Nervous System, Clinical Neurobiology. (A. K.Asbury, G. M.McKhann and W. I.McDonald, eds), pp. 1209–1228. W.B. Saunders Co, Philadelphia.
  • Uchida K., Baba H., Maezawa Y., Furukawa S., Furusawa N. and Imura S. (1998) Histological investigation of spinal cord lesions in the spinal hyperostotic mouse (twy/twy): morphological changes in anterior horn cells and immunoreactivity to neurotropic factors. J. Neurol. 245, 781793.
  • Vela J. M., Hidalgo J., Gonzalez B. and Castellano B. (1997) Induction of metallothionein in astrocytes and microglia in the spinal cord from the myelin-deficient jimpy mouse. Brain Res. 767, 345355.
  • Vincent V. A., Van Dam A. M., Persoons J. H., Schotanus K., Steinbusch H. W., Schoffelmeer A. N. and Berkenbosch F. (1996) Gradual inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase but not of interleukin-1 beta production in rat microglial cells of endotoxin-treated mixed glial cell cultures. Glia 17, 94102.
  • Yong V. W., Krekoski C. A., Forsyth P. A., Bell R. and Edwards D. R. (1998) Matrix metalloproteinases and diseases of the CNS. Trends Neurosci. 21, 7580.
  • Yoshida H., Imaizumi T., Tanji K., Matsumiya T., Sakaki H., Kimura D., Cui X. F., Kumagai M., Tamo W., Shibata T. et al. (2002) Platelet-activating factor enhances the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in normal human astrocytes. Brain Res. 944, 6572.
  • Zelenaia O., Schlag B. D., Gochenauer G. E., Ganel R., Song W., Beesley J. S., Grinspan J. B., Rothstein J. D. and Robinson M. B. (2000) Epidermal growth factor receptor agonists increase expression of glutamate transporter GLT-1 in astrocytes through pathways dependent on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and transcription factor NF-kappaB. Mol. Pharmacol. 57, 667678.