The signal transduction and molecular mechanisms underlying α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA)-mediated neuroprotection are unknown. In the present study, we determined a major AMPA receptor-mediated neuroprotective pathway. Exposure of cerebellar granule cells to AMPA (500 µm) + aniracetam (1 µm), a known blocker of AMPA receptor desensitization, evoked an accumulation of brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) in the culture medium and enhanced TrkB-tyrosine phosphorylation following the release of BDNF. AMPA also activated the src-family tyrosine kinase, Lyn, and the downstream target of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) pathway, Akt. Extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), a component of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, was also activated. K252a, a selective inhibitor of neurotrophin signaling, blocked the AMPA-mediated neuroprotection. The involvement of BDNF release in protecting neurons by AMPA was confirmed using a BDNF-blocking antibody. AMPA-mediated neuroprotection is blocked by PP1, an inhibitor of src family kinases, LY294002, a PI3-K inhibitor, or U0126, a MAPK kinase (MEK) inhibitor. Neuroprotective concentrations of AMPA increased BDNF mRNA levels that was blocked by the AMPA receptor antagonist, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6-nitro-2,3-dioxo-benzo[f]quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide (NBQX). The increase in BDNF gene expression appeared to be the downstream target of the PI3-K-dependent activation of the MAPK cascade since MEK or the PI3-K inhibitor blocked the AMPA receptor-mediated increase in BDNF mRNA. Thus, AMPA receptors protect neurons through a mechanism involving BDNF release, TrkB receptor activation, and a signaling pathway involving a PI3-K dependent activation of MAPK that increases BDNF expression.