• amyloid peptide;
  • cytochemokines;
  • early growth response-1;
  • curcumin;
  • monocytes


Epidemiological studies show reduced risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) among patients using non-steroidal inflammatory drugs (NSAID) indicating the role of inflammation in AD. Studies have shown a chronic CNS inflammatory response associated with increased accumulation of amyloid peptide and activated microglia in AD. Our previous studies showed that interaction of Aβ1−40 or fibrilar Aβ1−42 caused activation of nuclear transcription factor, early growth response-1 (Egr-1), which resulted in increased expression of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) and chemokines (MIP-1β, MCP-1 and IL-8) in monocytes. We determined whether curcumin, a natural product known to have anti-inflammatory properties, suppressed Egr-1 activation and concomitant expression of cytochemokines. We show that curcumin (12.5–25 µm) suppresses the activation of Egr-1 DNA-binding activity in THP-1 monocytic cells. Curcumin abrogated Aβ1−40-induced expression of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) and chemokines (MIP-1β, MCP-1 and IL-8) in both peripheral blood monocytes and THP-1 cells. We found that curcumin inhibited Aβ1−40-induced MAP kinase activation and the phosphorylation of ERK-1/2 and its downstream target Elk-1. We observed that curcumin inhibited Aβ1−40-induced expression of CCR5 but not of CCR2b in THP-1 cells. This involved abrogation of Egr-1 DNA binding in the promoter of CCR5 by curcumin as determined by: (i) electrophoretic mobility shift assay, (ii) transfection studies with truncated CCR5 gene promoter constructs, and (iii) chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis. Finally, curcumin inhibited chemotaxis of THP-1 monocytes in response to chemoattractant. The inhibition of Egr-1 by curcumin may represent a potential therapeutic approach to ameliorate the inflammation and progression of AD.