We show here that the choline transporter-like (CTL) family is more extensive than initially described with five genes in humans and complex alternative splicing. In adult rat tissues, CTL2–4 mRNAs are mainly detected in peripheral tissues, while CTL1 is widely expressed throughout the nervous system. During rat post-natal development, CTL1 is expressed in several subpopulations of neurones and in the white matter, where its spatio-temporal distribution profile recalls that of myelin basic protein, an oligodendrocyte marker. We identified two major rat splice variants of CTL1 (CTL1a and CTL1b) differing in their carboxy-terminal tails with both able to increase choline transport after transfection in neuroblastoma cells. In the developing brain, CTL1a is expressed in both neurones and oligodendroglial cells, whereas CTL1b is restricted to oligodendroglial cells. These findings suggest specific roles for CTL1 splice variants in both neuronal and oligodendrocyte physiology.