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Keywords:

  • brain;
  • microglia;
  • minocycline;
  • neurodegeneration;
  • neuroprotection;
  • Parkinson's disease;
  • tumor necrosis factor

Abstract

Activated microglia are implicated in the pathogenesis of disease-, trauma- and toxicant-induced damage to the CNS, and strategies to modulate microglial activation are gaining impetus. A novel action of the tetracycline derivative minocycline is the ability to inhibit inflammation and free radical formation, factors that influence microglial activation. Minocycline is therefore being tested as a neuroprotective agent to alleviate CNS damage, although findings so far have yielded mixed results. Here, we showed that administration of a single low dose of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) or methamphetamine (METH), a paradigm that causes selective degeneration of striatal dopaminergic nerve terminals without affecting the cell body in substantia nigra, increased the expression of mRNAs encoding microglia-associated factors F4/80, interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, CCL2) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Minocycline treatment attenuated MPTP- or METH-mediated microglial activation, but failed to afford neuroprotection. Lack of neuroprotection was shown to be due to the inability of minocycline to abolish the induction of TNF-α and its receptors, thereby failing to modulate TNF signaling. Thus, TNF-α appeared to be an obligatory component of dopaminergic neurotoxicity. To address this possibility, we examined the effects of MPTP or METH in mice lacking genes encoding IL-6, CCL2 or TNF receptor (TNFR)1/2. Deficiency of either IL-6 or CCL2 did not alter MPTP neurotoxicity. However, deficiency of both TNFRs protected against the dopaminergic neurotoxicity of MPTP. Taken together, our findings suggest that attenuation of microglial activation is insufficient to modulate neurotoxicity as transient activation of microglia may suffice to initiate neurodegeneration. These findings support the hypothesis that TNF-α may play a role in the selective vulnerability of the nigrostriatal pathway associated with dopaminergic neurotoxicity and perhaps Parkinson's disease.