Oxidative stress and neurodegeneration: where are we now?
Article first published online: 19 JUN 2006
Journal of Neurochemistry
Volume 97, Issue 6, pages 1634–1658, June 2006
How to Cite
Halliwell, B. (2006), Oxidative stress and neurodegeneration: where are we now?. Journal of Neurochemistry, 97: 1634–1658. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2006.03907.x
- Issue published online: 19 JUN 2006
- Article first published online: 19 JUN 2006
- Received March 1, 2006; revised manuscript received March 13, 2006; accepted March 14, 2006.
- free radical;
- hydroxyl radical;
- protein aggregation;
- reactive oxygen species;
The brain and nervous system are prone to oxidative stress, and are inadequately equipped with antioxidant defense systems to prevent ‘ongoing’ oxidative damage, let alone the extra oxidative damage imposed by the neurodegenerative diseases. Indeed, increased oxidative damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, accumulation of oxidized aggregated proteins, inflammation, and defects in protein clearance constitute complex intertwined pathologies that conspire to kill neurons. After a long lag period, therapeutic and other interventions based on a knowledge of redox biology are on the horizon for at least some of the neurodegenerative diseases.