Membrane fractions of pig cerebellum show Ca2+-ATPase activdity and Ca2+ transport due to the presence of the secretory pathway Ca2+-ATPase (SPCA). The SPCA1 isoform shows a wide distribution in the neurons of pig cerebellum, where it is found in the Golgi complex of the soma of Purkinje, stellate, basket and granule cells, and also in more distal components of the secretory pathway associated with a synaptic localization such as in cerebellar glomeruli. The SPCA1 may be involved in loading the Golgi complex and the secretory vesicles of these specific neuronal cell types with Ca2+ and also Mn2+. This study of the cellular and subcellular localization of SPCA1 pumps relative to the sarco(endo) plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase and plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase pumps hints to a possible specific role of SPCA1 in controlling the luminal secretory pathway Ca2+ (or Mn2+) levels as well as the local cytosolic Ca2+ levels. In addition, it helps to specify the zones that are most vulnerable to Ca2+ and/or Mn2+ dyshomeostasis, a condition that is held responsible of an increasing number of neurological disorders.