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Keywords:

  • calpain;
  • cytoskeleton;
  • endosome;
  • exocytosis;
  • synaptic vesicle

Abstract

The first calpain protease was discovered over 40 years ago now, yet despite the vast amount of literature that has subsequently emerged detailing their involvement in the pathophysiology of a variety of human diseases, it is only in the last decade that calpain-mediated actions along the secretory pathway have begun to emerge. However, the number of secretory pathway substrates identified and their diversity of function continues to grow. This review summarizes our current knowledge of calpain-mediated mechanisms of action that are pertinent to synaptic vesicle assembly and budding, cytoskeletal organization, endosomal recycling, and exocytotic membrane fusion.