The blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier is a major pathway of cerebral creatinine clearance: involvement of transporter-mediated process


Address correspondence and reprint requests to Professor Ken-ichi Hosoya, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-0194, Japan. E-mail:


There is still incomplete evidence for the cerebral clearance of creatinine (CTN) which is an endogenous convulsant and accumulates in the brain and CSF of patients with renal failure. The purpose of this study was to clarify the transporter-mediated CTN efflux transport from the brain/CSF. In vivo data demonstrated that CTN after intracerebral administration was not significantly eliminated from the brain across the blood-brain barrier. In contrast, the elimination clearance of CTN from the CSF was 60-fold greater than that of inulin, reflecting CSF bulk flow. Even in renal failure model rats, the increasing ratio of the CTN concentration in the CSF was lower than that in the plasma, suggesting a significant role for the CSF-to-blood efflux process. The inhibitory effects of inhibitors and antisense oligonucleotides on CTN uptake by isolated choroid plexus indicated the involvement of rat organic cation transporter 3 (rOCT3) and creatine transporter (CRT) in CTN transport. rOCT3- and CRT-mediated low-affinity CTN transport with Km values of 47.7 and 52.0 mM, respectively. Our findings suggest that CTN is eliminated from the CSF across the blood-CSF barrier as a major pathway of cerebral CTN clearance and transporter-mediated processes are involved in the CTN transport in the choroid plexus.