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Keywords:

  • Alzheimer’s disease;
  • Amyloid precursor protein;
  • Amyloid-beta-peptide;
  • trafficking;
  • C99;
  • α-secretase cleavage

Abstract

The Swedish mutation within the amyloid precursor protein (APP) causes early-onset Alzheimer’s disease due to increased cleavage of APP by BACE1. While β-secretase shedding of Swedish APP (APPswe) largely results from an activity localized in the late secretory pathway, cleavage of wild-type APP occurs mainly in endocytic compartments. However, we show that liberation of Aβ from APPswe is still dependent on functional internalization from the cell surface. Inspite the unchanged overall β-secretase cleaved soluble APP released from APPswe secretion, mutations of the APPswe internalization motif strongly reduced C99 levels and substantially decreased Aβ secretion. We point out that α-secretase activity-mediated conversion of C99 to C83 is the main cause of this Aβ reduction. Furthermore, we demonstrate that α-secretase cleavage of C99 even contributes to the reduction of Aβ secretion of internalization deficient wild-type APP. Therefore, inhibition of α-secretase cleavage increased Aβ secretion through diminished conversion of C99 to C83 in APP695, APP695swe or C99 expressing cells.