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Keywords:

  • endogenous ligand;
  • glia;
  • MD-2;
  • neuroinflammation;
  • Toll-like receptor;
  • sepsis

J. Neurochem. (2010) 114, 13–27.

Abstract

The responses of the brain to infection, ischemia and trauma share remarkable similarities. These and other conditions of the CNS coordinate an innate immune response marked by activation of microglia, the macrophage-like cells of the nervous system. An important contributor to microglial activation is toll-like receptor 4, a pathogen-associated molecular pattern receptor known to initiate an inflammatory cascade in response to various CNS stimuli. The present review traces new efforts to characterize and control toll-like receptor 4 in inflammatory etiologies of the nervous system.