Unique clockwork in photoreceptor of rat

Authors

  • Katja Schneider,

    1. Institute of Functional and Clinical Anatomy, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, Germany
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    • Katja Schneider and Susanne Tippmann share first authorship.

  • Susanne Tippmann,

    1. Institute of Functional and Clinical Anatomy, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, Germany
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    • Katja Schneider and Susanne Tippmann share first authorship.

  • Isabella Spiwoks-Becker,

    1. Institute of Microanatomy and Neurobiology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, Germany
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  • Heike Holthues,

    1. Faculty of Computer Science and Engineering, Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
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  • Tanja Wolloscheck,

    1. Institute of Functional and Clinical Anatomy, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, Germany
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  • Gabriele Spatkowski,

    1. Institute of Functional and Clinical Anatomy, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, Germany
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  • Lydia Engel,

    1. Institute of Microanatomy and Neurobiology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, Germany
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  • Ute Frederiksen,

    1. Institute of Functional and Clinical Anatomy, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, Germany
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  • Rainer Spessert

    1. Institute of Functional and Clinical Anatomy, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, Germany
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Address correspondence and reprint requests to Rainer Spessert, Department of Functional and Clinical Anatomy, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Saarstraße 19-21, 55099 Mainz, Germany. E-mail: spessert@uni-mainz.de

Abstract

J. Neurochem. (2010) 115, 585–594.

Abstract

In mammals, the retina contains a clock system that oscillates independently of the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and allows the retina to anticipate and to adapt to the sustained daily changes in ambient illumination. Using a combination of laser capture micro-dissection and quantitative PCR in the present study, the clockwork of mammalian photoreceptors has been recorded. The transcript amounts of the core clock genes Clock, Bmal1, Period1 (Per1), Per3, Cryptochrome2, and Casein kinase Iε in photoreceptors of rat retina have been found to undergo daily changes. Clock and Bmal1 peak with Per1 and Per3 around dark onset, whereas Casein kinase Iε and Cryptochrome2 peak at night. As shown for Clock, Per1, and Casein kinase Iε, the oscillation of transcript amounts results in daily changes of the protein products. The in-phase oscillation of Clock/Bmal1 with Pers and the rhythmic expression of Casein kinase Iε do not occur in molecular clocks of other tissues including the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Therefore, the findings presented suggest that the photoreceptor clock is unique not only in its position outside the clock hierarchy mastered by the suprachiasmatic nucleus, but also with regard to the intrinsic rhythmic properties of its molecular components.

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