The oxysterol 27-hydroxycholesterol regulates α-synuclein and tyrosine hydroxylase expression levels in human neuroblastoma cells through modulation of liver X receptors and estrogen receptors–relevance to Parkinson’s disease
Article first published online: 24 OCT 2011
© 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry
Journal of Neurochemistry
Volume 119, Issue 5, pages 1119–1136, December 2011
How to Cite
Marwarha, G., Rhen, T., Schommer, T. and Ghribi, O. (2011), The oxysterol 27-hydroxycholesterol regulates α-synuclein and tyrosine hydroxylase expression levels in human neuroblastoma cells through modulation of liver X receptors and estrogen receptors–relevance to Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Neurochemistry, 119: 1119–1136. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2011.07497.x
- Issue published online: 14 NOV 2011
- Article first published online: 24 OCT 2011
- Accepted manuscript online: 23 SEP 2011 05:26AM EST
- Received June 6, 2011; revised manuscript received September 12, 2011; accepted September 19, 2011.
- estrogen receptors;
- liver X receptor;
- Parkinson’s disease;
- tyrosine hydroxylase
J. Neurochem. (2011) 119, 1119–1136.
Loss of dopaminergic neurons and α-synuclein accumulation are the two major pathological hallmarks of Parkinson’s disease. Currently, the mechanisms governing depletion of dopamine content and α-synuclein accumulation are not well understood. We showed that the oxysterol 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC) reduces the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis, and increases α-synuclein levels in SH-SY5Y cells. However, the cellular mechanisms involved in 27-OHC effects were not elucidated. In this study, we demonstrate that 27-OHC regulates TH and α-synuclein expression levels through the estrogen receptors (ER) and liver X receptors (LXR). We specifically show that inhibition of ERβ mediates 27-OHC-induced decrease in TH expression, an effect reversed by the ER agonist estradiol. We also show that 27-OHC and the LXR agonist GW3965 increase α-synuclein while the LXR antagonist 5α-6α-epoxycholesterol-3-sulfate significantly attenuated the 27-OHC-induced increase in α-synuclein expression. We further demonstrate that LXRβ positively regulates α-synuclein expression and 27-OHC increases LXRβ-mediated α-synuclein transcription. Our results demonstrate the involvement of two distinct pathways that are involved in the 27-OHC regulation of TH and α-synuclein levels. Concomitant activation of ERβ and inhibition of LXRβ prevent 27-OHC effects and may therefore reduce the progression of Parkinson’s disease by precluding TH reduction and α-synuclein accumulation.