The self-perceptions of competence of white, middle-class fifth- and tenth-grade girls were examined in relation to (a) certain maternal variables and (b) self-esteem and anticipated role pattern (career aspirations and desired family size). Subjects were 79 fifth-graders and 51 of their mothers, and 49 tenth-graders and 38 of their mothers. Self-perceptions of competence were measured by an adaptation of the Rosenkrantz Sex-Role Questionnaire. Specific maternal variables were: mothers' self-perceptions of competence, maternal child-rearing values, and maternal employment. In the results, girls who had high self-perceptions of competence had mothers whose own self-perceptions were high; their mothers placed significantly more value on traits related to independence, assertiveness, and achievement. There were no effects of maternal employment. Other findings were: there was a positive relationship of self-esteem and self-perceptions of competence (significant only for tenth-graders); and high-competence girls had higher career aspirations and desired fewer children.