A conceptual model is presented which relates numerous variables believed to contribute to sexism in American education. Discrimination is viewed as intervening between two sets of interrelated independent variables and the dependent variable of sex inequalities in educational attainment. The two sets of independent variables are 1) internal psychological-cognitive structures of individuals who participate in the educational system, and 2) the educational system itself. Six internal psychological-cognitive structures are emphasized: sex-role orientation, sex difference stereotypes, ego strength, self-concept, and educational and occupational expectations. Sex-role orientation changes are viewed as the key to significant change in the total system described by the model.