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This article offers a framework for understanding contradictory findings in the field of the personality of working and professional women. Modern theory and research display two patterns: the early pattern of the 1960s, which viewed professional women as violating sex stereotypes, lacking femininity, and having personality disturbances; and the contemporary view, which emerged during the 1970s and suggests the possibility of combining career with family without psychological conflicts and personality disturbances. A critical appraisal of the literature in four areas (psychological role conflict, fear of success, comparison between housewives and career women, and comparisons between women in traditional and pioneer occupations) concludes that little evidence supports the view that professional women have personality disturbances because of their career. Possible explanations for shifting viewpoints and contradictory findings are presented. The article also analyzes the issues and problems professional women currently face and assesses the accessibility of those issues to empirical study.