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Although many studies have compared gender-role ideologies internationally and cross-culturally, few researchers have attended to cultural differences in the meaningfulness or conceptual equivalence of the scale items. The literature on the use of instruments internationally is reviewed with respect to potentially universal (etic) constructs and findings. Gender differences in attitudes and the domains in which gender-related behavior is expressed differ internationally. A potential universal dimension is represented by a modern, egalitarian ideology on the one pole and a traditional ideology on the other. Using scales developed in three cultural contexts, we demonstrate that ratings of meaningfulness are correlated with the use of scores distant from the midpoint. Specific recommendations for researchers include consultation with cultural informants and incorporation of culturally specific (emic) items.