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EXAMINING THE JOB-RELATED, PSYCHOLOGICAL, AND PHYSICAL OUTCOMES OF WORKPLACE SEXUAL HARASSMENT: A META-ANALYTIC REVIEW

Authors


  • Darius K-S. Chan, Department of Psychology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong; Chun Bun Lam, Department of Human Development and Family Studies, The Pennsylvania State University; Suk Yee Chow, Department of Psychology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong; and Shu Fai Cheung, Department of Psychology, The University of Macau.

  • We would like to thank Dr. Maria Testa and two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments on this article.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Darius Chan, Department of Psychology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong. E-mail: dchan@cuhk.edu.hk

Abstract

This study was designed to examine the job-related, psychological, and physical outcomes of sexual harassment in the workplace. Using a meta-analytic approach, we analyzed findings from 49 primary studies, with a total sample size of 89,382, to obtain estimates of the population mean effect size of the association between sexual harassment and job-related outcomes (e.g., job satisfaction and organizational commitment), psychological outcomes (e.g., well-being and distress), and physical outcomes (e.g., health satisfaction and physical symptoms). Moderator analyses were also conducted to examine whether gender, age (below 40 years vs. greater than or equal to 40 years), and type of measure (a “direct question” approach vs. “behavioral list” approach) moderate the strength of these associations. Meta-analytic results confirm that sexual harassment experiences are negatively associated with job-related outcomes, psychological health, and physical health conditions. In addition, our moderator analyses reveal that the strength of these associations was moderated by the mean age of the samples and the type of measure used in the primary studies. Conceptual and applied implications of these findings are discussed.

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