Nicolas Souchon, School of Psychology, Cardiff University and Université de Paris X, Nanterre; Gregory R. Maio, School of Psychology, Cardiff University; Genevieve Cabagno and Olivier Rascle, STAPS Department, CREAD laboratory, Université de Rennes II; Alan Traclet, ISSEP department, Université de Lausanne, Suisse; Fabrice Dosseville, STAPS Department, IOD laboratory, Université de Caen.
REFEREES' DECISION MAKING ABOUT TRANSGRESSIONS: THE INFLUENCE OF PLAYER GENDER AT THE HIGHEST NATIONAL LEVEL
Article first published online: 4 NOV 2009
© 2009 Division 35, American Psychological Association
Psychology of Women Quarterly
Volume 33, Issue 4, pages 445–452, December 2009
How to Cite
Souchon, N., Cabagno, G., Rascle, O., Traclet, A., Dosseville, F. and Maio, G. R. (2009), REFEREES' DECISION MAKING ABOUT TRANSGRESSIONS: THE INFLUENCE OF PLAYER GENDER AT THE HIGHEST NATIONAL LEVEL. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 33: 445–452. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-6402.2009.01522.x
- Issue published online: 4 NOV 2009
- Article first published online: 4 NOV 2009
- Initial submission: February 21, 2008Initial acceptance: January 23, 2009Final acceptance: March 10, 2009
Prior research has found that referees are harsher toward sporting offenses in regional-level matches between women than in regional-level matches between men. We tested whether this bias also occurs at a higher, national level of competition, despite the greater pressures for objectivity and fairness at this level. Referees' decisions were examined in 15 national-level handball matches between women and 15 national-level handball matches between men after transgressions that varied in severity. The results suggest that referees made harsher decisions in female than in male matches. Although more research is needed, this study supported the hypothesis that referees may use the gender of players as a powerful judgmental heuristic for deciding how to respond to aggression.