Carapa guianensis is a timber species found in Central America and the north of South America. We have developed microsatellite primers which will allow analysis of gene flow and population genetic structure in natural populations of this tree species. Polymorphism of five microsatellite loci was evaluated using a total of 12 adult trees from a natural population. An average of 4.2 alleles per locus was detected, and expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.397 to 0.806. These loci are being used for genetic population analysis in a managed forest in the state of Pará, in Amazonian Brazil, as part of the Dendrogene project.