Forty-three microsatellites were isolated from grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) of Mediterranean origin using the standard enrichment methods followed by enhanced chemiluminescence for the rapid identification of clones containing microsatellites. Eleven microsatellites were characterized to assess genetic diversity of different populations surrounding the island of Sardinia in Italy. The versatility of these markers was also assessed using an Australian population. All 11 microsatellites were highly polymorphic with a mean heterozygosity of 0.834. The number of alleles ranged from 14 to 38 in the Sardinian populations and from 11 to 25 in the Australian samples.