Aconitum napellus is a perennial European Ranunculaceae that is currently decreasing in France. Six polymorphic microsatellite markers were characterized to study the polymorphism among individuals sampled from six populations in France. The total number of alleles per locus varied from two to four. Mean observed heterozygosities at each microsatellite locus ranged from 0.05 to 0.19. This set of microsatellites offers an efficient tool for more detailed investigations on population genetic structure of a rare species that can reproduce both sexually and by vegetative spread.