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Geneland: a computer package for landscape genetics


G. Guillot, Unité de Mathématiques et Informatiques Appliquées, INRA-INA PG-ENGREF Institut National Agronomique 16, rue Claude Bernard, 75231 Paris cedex 5, France. Fax: (+ 33) 1 44 08 16 66; E-mail:


Geneland is a computer package that allows to make use of georeferenced individual multilocus genotypes for the inference of the number of populations and of the spatial location of genetic discontinuities between those populations. Main assumptions of the method are: (i) the number of populations is unknown and all values are considered a priori equally likely, (ii) populations are spread over areas given by a union of some polygons of unknown location in the spatial domain, (iii) Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium is assumed within each population and (iv) allele frequencies in each population are unknown and treated as random variable either following the so-called Dirichlet model or Falush model. Different algorithms implemented in Geneland to perform inferences are first briefly presented. Then major running steps and outputs (i.e. histogram of number of populations and map of posterior probabilities of population membership) are illustrated from the analysis of a simulated data set, which was also produced by Geneland.