Short microsatellite DNA markers for the red fox (Vulpes vulpes)


Peter Wandeler, ‡Present address: Zoological Museum, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstr. 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland. Fax: +41 (0) 44 6356818; E-mail:


Seven short microsatellite loci (< 165 bp) were characterized for red foxes for the amplification of degraded DNA extracted from historical samples. Following polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers developed in the domestic dog, red fox-specific primers were designed within the flanking regions. The number of detected alleles ranged between six and 15 alleles and the expected heterozygosities ranged between 0.67 and 0.92. No deviations from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium were detected for any of the markers.