Eight polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized for the peacock wrasse (Symphodus tinca), a labrid fish inhabiting the Mediterranean and Black seas. Characterization of 35 individuals from the western Mediterranean indicated a relatively high allelic diversity (mean = 12.4, range 9–17), and observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.65 to 0.91. We found no evidence of linkage disequilibrium between pairs of loci. Two loci showed significant departure from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. These polymorphic markers can be useful in most basic population genetic applications.