The aim of this study was to develop simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for Dendrobium varieties/species, many of which have medicinal and horticultural values. Two genomic DNA libraries of Dendrobium Sonia enriched with GA repeats and CA repeats were constructed. Fourteen polymorphic SSR markers were identified when screened against 42 popular commercial Dendrobium hybrids. The average allele number was 12.0 ± 1.9 and the observed heterozyosity was averaged at 0.70. All 42 hybrids tested, except for two tissue culture mutants, were uniquely identified with the markers used. Sibling hybrids were closely clustered. Hybrids were also closer to parents. These SSR markers can be used for molecular ecology research, genetic mapping and marker-assisted breeding. They can also help protection for new Dendrobium varieties.